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In Situ Catalytic Upgrading of Heavy Crude with CAPRI: Influence of Hydrogen on Catalyst Pore Plugging and Deactivation due to Coke

School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
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Energies 2018, 11(3), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030636
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
Heavy crude oil is known to have low hydrogen-to-carbon ratios compared to light oil. This is due to the significant content of carbon-rich species such as resins and asphaltenes; hence their upgrading is commonly through carbon-rejection. However, carbon-rejection promotes rapid fouling of catalyst and pore plugging, yielding low upgraded oil and consequently low fuel distillate fractions when distilled. The roles of hydrogen-addition on in situ catalytic upgrading were investigated at pre-established conditions (425 °C, LHSV 11.8 h−1, and 20–40 bars) using a simulated fixed-bed reactor that mimics the annular sheath of catalyst (CAPRI) surrounding the horizontal producer well of the Toe-to-Heel Air Injection (THAI) process. It was found that with H-addition, the upgraded oil American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity increased to about 5° compared to 3° obtained with N2 above 13° (THAI feed oil). The fuel distillate fractions increased to 62% (N2, 20 bar), 65% (H2, 20 bar), and 71.8% (H2, 30 bar) relative to 40.6% (THAI feed oil); while the coke contents of the catalyst after experiments were 35.3 wt % (N2), and 27.2 wt % (H2). It was also found that catalyst pore plugging and deactivation due to coke was significantly lower under hydrogen than with nitrogen; hence the catalyst is less susceptible to coke fouling when the upgrading reaction is carried out under hydrogen. The coke fouling further decreases with increasing hydrogen pressure while the API gravity of the upgraded oil marginally increases by 0.3° for every 10 bar increase in pressure from 20 to 40 bar. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroprocessing; in situ catalytic; heavy crude; upgrading; coking hydroprocessing; in situ catalytic; heavy crude; upgrading; coking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hart, A.; Wood, J. In Situ Catalytic Upgrading of Heavy Crude with CAPRI: Influence of Hydrogen on Catalyst Pore Plugging and Deactivation due to Coke. Energies 2018, 11, 636. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030636

AMA Style

Hart A, Wood J. In Situ Catalytic Upgrading of Heavy Crude with CAPRI: Influence of Hydrogen on Catalyst Pore Plugging and Deactivation due to Coke. Energies. 2018; 11(3):636. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030636

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hart, Abarasi, and Joseph Wood. 2018. "In Situ Catalytic Upgrading of Heavy Crude with CAPRI: Influence of Hydrogen on Catalyst Pore Plugging and Deactivation due to Coke" Energies 11, no. 3: 636. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030636

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