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Article

Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Food Waste Using CeZrOx

1
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609, USA
2
Mainstream Engineering Corporation, Rockledge, FL 32955, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(3), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030564
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermo Fluid Conversion of Biomass)
Approximately 15 million dry tons of food waste is produced annually in the United States (USA), and 92% of this waste is disposed of in landfills where it decomposes to produce greenhouse gases and water pollution. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive technology capable of converting a broad range of organic compounds, especially those with substantial water content, into energy products. The HTL process produces a bio-oil precursor that can be further upgraded to transportation fuels and an aqueous phase containing water-soluble organic impurities. Converting small oxygenated compounds that partition into the water phase into larger, hydrophobic compounds can reduce aqueous phase remediation costs and improve energy yields. HTL was investigated at 300 °C and a reaction time of 1 h for conversion of an institutional food waste to bio-oil, using either homogeneous Na2CO3 or heterogeneous CeZrOx to promote in situ conversion of water-soluble organic compounds into less oxygenated, oil-soluble products. Results with food waste indicate that CeZrOx improves both bio-oil higher heating value (HHV) and energy recovery when compared both to non-catalytic and Na2CO3-catalyzed HTL. The aqueous phase obtained using CeZrOx as an HTL catalyst contained approximately half the total organic carbon compared to that obtained using Na2CO3—suggesting reduced water treatment costs using the heterogeneous catalyst. Experiments with model compounds indicated that the primary mechanism of action was condensation of aldehydes, a reaction which simultaneously increases molecular weight and oxygen-to-carbon ratio—consistent with the improvements in bio-oil yield and HHV observed with institutional food waste. The catalyst was stable under hydrothermal conditions (≥16 h at 300 °C) and could be reused at least three times for conversion of model aldehydes to water insoluble products. Energy and economic analysis suggested favorable performance for the heterogeneous catalyst compared either to non-catalytic HTL or Na2CO3-catalyzed HTL, especially once catalyst lifetime differences were considered. The results of this study establish the potential of heterogeneous catalysts to improve HTL economics and energetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal liquefaction; ceria zirconia; food waste; aldehyde condensation; waste valorization hydrothermal liquefaction; ceria zirconia; food waste; aldehyde condensation; waste valorization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maag, A.R.; Paulsen, A.D.; Amundsen, T.J.; Yelvington, P.E.; Tompsett, G.A.; Timko, M.T. Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Food Waste Using CeZrOx. Energies 2018, 11, 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030564

AMA Style

Maag AR, Paulsen AD, Amundsen TJ, Yelvington PE, Tompsett GA, Timko MT. Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Food Waste Using CeZrOx. Energies. 2018; 11(3):564. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030564

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maag, Alex R.; Paulsen, Alex D.; Amundsen, Ted J.; Yelvington, Paul E.; Tompsett, Geoffrey A.; Timko, Michael T. 2018. "Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Food Waste Using CeZrOx" Energies 11, no. 3: 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030564

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