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Open AccessArticle

Optimal Control Algorithms with Adaptive Time-Mesh Refinement for Kite Power Systems

1
SYSTEC–ISR, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Politécnico do Porto, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.
Energies 2018, 11(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030475
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
This article addresses the problem of optimizing electrical power generation using kite power systems (KPSs). KPSs are airborne wind energy systems that aim to harvest the power of strong and steady high-altitude winds. With the aim of maximizing the total energy produced in a given time interval, we numerically solve an optimal control problem and thereby obtain trajectories and controls for kites. Efficiently solving these optimal control problems is crucial when the results are used in real-time control schemes, such as model predictive control. For this highly nonlinear problem, we derive continuous-time models—in 2D and 3D—and implement an adaptive time-mesh refinement algorithm. By solving the optimal control problem with such an adaptive refinement strategy, we generate a block-structured adapted mesh which gives results as accurate as those computed using fine mesh, yet with much less computing effort and high savings in memory and computing time. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonlinear systems; optimal control; real-time optimization; continuous-time systems; adaptive algorithms; time-mesh refinement; kite power systems; airborne wind energy nonlinear systems; optimal control; real-time optimization; continuous-time systems; adaptive algorithms; time-mesh refinement; kite power systems; airborne wind energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paiva, L.T.; Fontes, F.A.C.C. Optimal Control Algorithms with Adaptive Time-Mesh Refinement for Kite Power Systems. Energies 2018, 11, 475. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030475

AMA Style

Paiva LT, Fontes FACC. Optimal Control Algorithms with Adaptive Time-Mesh Refinement for Kite Power Systems. Energies. 2018; 11(3):475. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030475

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paiva, Luís T.; Fontes, Fernando A.C.C. 2018. "Optimal Control Algorithms with Adaptive Time-Mesh Refinement for Kite Power Systems" Energies 11, no. 3: 475. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030475

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