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Energies 2018, 11(10), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102699

Optimization of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Vehicles with Dynamic On-Off Power Loads Using a Nested Formulation

1
School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W2Y2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
PDF [3105 KB, uploaded 10 October 2018]

Abstract

In this paper, identification of an appropriate hybrid energy storage system (HESS) architecture, introduction of a comprehensive and accurate HESS model, as well as HESS design optimization using a nested, dual-level optimization formulation and suitable optimization algorithms for both levels of searches have been presented. At the bottom level, design optimization focuses on the minimization of power loss in batteries, converter, and ultracapacitors (UCs), as well as the impact of battery depth of discharge (DOD) to its operation life, using a dynamic programming (DP)-based optimal energy management strategy (EMS). At the top level, HESS optimization of component size and battery DOD is carried out to achieve the minimum life-cycle cost (LCC) of the HESS for given power profiles and performance requirements as an outer loop. The complex and challenging optimization problem is solved using an advanced Multi-Start Space Reduction (MSSR) search method developed for computation-intensive, black-box global optimization problems. An example of load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicles is employed to verify the proposed HESS design optimization method and MSSR leads to superior optimization results and dramatically reduces computation time. This research forms the foundation for the design optimization of HESS, hybridization of vehicles with dynamic on-off power loads, and applications of the advanced global optimization method.
Keywords: nested optimization; hybrid energy storage system; surrogate-based optimization method; electrified vehicles nested optimization; hybrid energy storage system; surrogate-based optimization method; electrified vehicles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, J.; Dong, H.; Jin, T.; Liu, L.; Manouchehrinia, B.; Dong, Z. Optimization of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Vehicles with Dynamic On-Off Power Loads Using a Nested Formulation. Energies 2018, 11, 2699.

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