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Energies 2018, 11(10), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102668

Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Comparative Empirical Study of Selected Developed and Developing Countries. “The Role of Exergy”

1
Station Expérimentale des Procédés Pilotes en Environnement, École de Technologie Supérieure, Université du Québec, 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest Local A-1500, Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
2
Unidad de Investigación Especializada en Hidroinformática y Tecnología Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad Veracruzana, Lomas del Estadio s/n, Zona Universitaria, Xalapa 91090, Veracruz, Mexico
3
Instituto de Biotecnología y Ecología Aplicada, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. de las Culturas Núm.101, Col. Emiliano Zapata, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz, Mexico
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Abstract

Diverse factors may have an impact in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; thus, three main contributors, energy consumption, gross domestic product (GDP) and an exergy indicator are examined in this work. This study explores the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by means of the hypothesis postulated for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Panel data for ten countries, from 1971 to 2014 have been studied. Despite a wide gamma of research on the EKC, the role of an exergy variable has not been tested to find the EKC; for this reason, exergy analysis is proposed. Exergy analyses were performed to propose an exergetic indicator as a control variable and a comparative empirical study is developed to study a multivariable framework with the aim to detect correlations between them. High correlation between CO2, GDP, energy consumption, energy intensity and trade openness are observed, on the other hand not statistically significant values for trade openness and energy intensity. The results do not support the EKC hypothesis, however exergy intensity opens the door for future research once it proves to be a useful control variable. Exergy provides opportunities to analyze and implement energy and environmental policies in these countries, with the possibility to link exergy efficiencies and the use of renewables. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; energy policy; exergy analysis; exergetic intensity; greenhouse gases climate change; energy policy; exergy analysis; exergetic intensity; greenhouse gases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Arango-Miranda, R.; Hausler, R.; Romero-Lopez, R.; Glaus, M.; Ibarra-Zavaleta, S.P. Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Comparative Empirical Study of Selected Developed and Developing Countries. “The Role of Exergy”. Energies 2018, 11, 2668.

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