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Open AccessArticle

Online Parameter Identification and State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Forgetting Factor Recursive Least Squares and Nonlinear Kalman Filter

1
Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China
2
Sunwoda Electronic Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518108, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010003
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
State of charge (SOC) estimation is the core of any battery management system. Most closed-loop SOC estimation algorithms are based on the equivalent circuit model with fixed parameters. However, the parameters of the equivalent circuit model will change as temperature or SOC changes, resulting in reduced SOC estimation accuracy. In this paper, two SOC estimation algorithms with online parameter identification are proposed to solve this problem based on forgetting factor recursive least squares (FFRLS) and nonlinear Kalman filter. The parameters of a Thevenin model are constantly updated by FFRLS. The nonlinear Kalman filter is used to perform the recursive operation to estimate SOC. Experiments in variable temperature environments verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. A combination of four driving cycles is loaded on lithium-ion batteries to test the adaptability of the approaches to different working conditions. Under certain conditions, the average error of the SOC estimation dropped from 5.6% to 1.1% after adding the online parameters identification, showing that the estimation accuracy of proposed algorithms is greatly improved. Besides, simulated measurement noise is added to the test data to prove the robustness of the algorithms. View Full-Text
Keywords: forgetting factor recursive least squares; nonlinear Kalman filter; state of charge estimation; online parameter identification; lithium-ion battery; variable temperature forgetting factor recursive least squares; nonlinear Kalman filter; state of charge estimation; online parameter identification; lithium-ion battery; variable temperature
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Xia, B.; Lao, Z.; Zhang, R.; Tian, Y.; Chen, G.; Sun, Z.; Wang, W.; Sun, W.; Lai, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, H. Online Parameter Identification and State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Forgetting Factor Recursive Least Squares and Nonlinear Kalman Filter. Energies 2018, 11, 3.

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