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Energies 2018, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010029

Simulation and Empirical Studies of the Commercial SI Engine Performance and Its Emission Levels When Running on a CNG and Hydrogen Blend

1
Laboratory of the Electromechanical System, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), BP. 1173, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia
2
Technical and Vocational Training Corporation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bishah Technical College, BP. 688, 61922 Bishah, Province of Assir, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract

This article is a report on a simulation based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and an empirical investigation of in-cylinder flow characteristics, In addition, it assesses the performance and emission levels of a commercial-spark ignited engine running on a CNG and Hydrogen blend in different ratios. The main objective was to determine the optimum hydrogen ratio that would yield the best brake torque and release the least polluting gases. The in-cylinder flow velocity and turbulence aspects were investigated during the intake stroke in order to analyze the intake flow behavior. To reach this goal, a 3D CFD code was adopted. For various engine speeds were investigated for gasoline, CNG and hydrogen and CNG blend (HCNG) fueled engines via external mixtures. The variation of brake torque (BT), NOX and CO emissions. A series of tests were conducted on the engine within the speed range of 1000 to 5000 rpm. For this purpose, a commercial Hyundai Sonata S.I engine was modified to operate with a blend of CNG and Hydrogen in different ratios. The experiments attempted to determine the optimum allowable hydrogen ratio with CNG for normal engine operation. The engine performance and the emission levels were also analyzed. At the engine speed of 4200 rpm, the results revealed that beyond a ratio of 50% of the volume of hydrogen added to CNG a backfire phenomenon appeared. Below this ratio (0~40%) of the hydrogen volume, the CNG and Hydrogen blend seemed to be beneficial for the engine performance and for curtailing the emission level. However, at low engine speeds, the NOX concentration increased simultaneously with hydrogen content. In contrast, at high engine speeds, the NOX concentration decreased to its lowest level compared to that reached with gasoline as a running fuel. The concentration levels of HC, CO2, and CO decreased with the increase of hydrogen percentage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); engine; conversion; CNG; Hydrogen; intake; turbulence Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); engine; conversion; CNG; Hydrogen; intake; turbulence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Saaidia, R.; Jemni, M.A.; Abid, M.S. Simulation and Empirical Studies of the Commercial SI Engine Performance and Its Emission Levels When Running on a CNG and Hydrogen Blend. Energies 2018, 11, 29.

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