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Energies 2017, 10(8), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081161

Modeling of MMC for Fast and Accurate Simulation of Electromagnetic Transients: A Review

Department of Electric Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), O.S. Bragstads Plass 2E, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
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Academic Editor: Jens Kofoed
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract

Over the past decade, modular multilevel converters have evolved as the preferred choice for high voltage conversion systems. The design of the converter poses a computational challenge to the classical electromagnetic transient simulation techniques, for which the existing literature proposes numerous simplified and computationally-efficient equivalent representations. Despite the extensive collection of proposed models, the literature lacks a systematic comparison of these representations, which could enable their appropriate selection based on the specific simulation objectives. In light of these requirements, this article presents a comprehensive review of MMC models and discusses their applicability for parallel and real-time simulation. Using PSCAD/EMTDC simulations, the models are objectively compared with regards to computational efficiency and accuracy for various transient conditions. In addition, the paper also presents a brief account of MMC operation and the associated control and modulation system. View Full-Text
Keywords: high voltage direct current; modular multilevel converters (MMC); electromagnetic transient (EMT); Thevenin’s equivalent models; switching function models; average models high voltage direct current; modular multilevel converters (MMC); electromagnetic transient (EMT); Thevenin’s equivalent models; switching function models; average models
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Khan, S.S.; Tedeschi, E. Modeling of MMC for Fast and Accurate Simulation of Electromagnetic Transients: A Review. Energies 2017, 10, 1161.

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