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Energies 2017, 10(7), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070978

Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions—An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

1
Division of Building, Energy and Environment Technology, Department of Technology and Environment, University of Gävle, Gävle 802 67, Sweden
2
Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping 581 83, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chi-Ming Lai
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract

In the European Union’s Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the energy efficiency goal for buildings is set in terms of primary energy use. In the proposal from the National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, for nearly zero energy buildings in Sweden, the use of primary energy is expressed as a primary energy number calculated with given primary energy factors. In this article, a multi-dwelling building is simulated and the difference in the primary energy number is investigated when the building uses heat from district heating systems or from heat pumps, alone or combined with solar thermal or solar photovoltaic systems. It is also investigated how the global CO2 emissions are influenced by the different energy system combinations and with different fuels used. It is concluded that the calculated primary energy number is lower for heat pump systems, but the global CO2 emissions are lowest when district heating uses mostly biofuels and is combined with solar PV systems. The difference is up to 140 tonnes/year. If the aim with the Swedish building code is to decrease the global CO2 emissions then the ratio between the primary energy factors for electricity and heat should be larger than three and considerably higher than today. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy performance of buildings; district heating; heat pump; decentralized energy generation systems; primary energy; primary energy factors energy performance of buildings; district heating; heat pump; decentralized energy generation systems; primary energy; primary energy factors
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Gustafsson, M.; Thygesen, R.; Karlsson, B.; Ödlund, L. Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions—An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings. Energies 2017, 10, 978.

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