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Energies 2017, 10(7), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070890

Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System

1
Department of Tourism and Leisure, National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Makung 880, Taiwan
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Makunk 880, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hua Li
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract

The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. Electric-bus (e-bus) transportation systems help reduce pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), a genetic algorithm (GA), and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption) and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was shown to be lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system. View Full-Text
Keywords: public bus transportation; battery-swapping electric-bus (e-bus); battery charging; construction costs; particle swarm optimization (PSO); PSO-genetic algorithm (GA) public bus transportation; battery-swapping electric-bus (e-bus); battery charging; construction costs; particle swarm optimization (PSO); PSO-genetic algorithm (GA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fang, S.-C.; Ke, B.-R.; Chung, C.-Y. Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System. Energies 2017, 10, 890.

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