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Energies 2017, 10(7), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070851

Hybrid, Multi-Megawatt HVDC Transformer Topology Comparison for Future Offshore Wind Farms

1
Research and Disruptive Innovation, Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult (ORE Catapult), Blyth NE24 1LZ, UK
2
Institute for Energy Systems, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, UK
3
Naval Architecture, Ocean & Marine, Strathclyde University, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
4
Renewable Energy, Exeter University, Exeter EX4 4SB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon Watson
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2730 KB, uploaded 28 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

With the wind industry moving further offshore, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission is becoming increasingly popular. HVDC transformer substations are not optimized for the offshore industry though, increasing costs and reducing redundancy. A suggested medium frequency, modular hybrid HVDC transformer located within each wind turbine nacelle could mitigate these problems, but the overall design must be considered carefully to minimize losses. This paper’s contribution is a detailed analysis of the hybrid transformer, using practical design considerations including component library minimization. The configurations investigated include combinations of single phase H-Bridge and Modular Multilevel Converter topologies operating under minimum switching frequency control strategies. These were modelled in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The impact of the minimum switching control strategy and converter topology on power transfer stability and overall efficiency is then investigated. It was found that the H-Bridge converter generated the lowest overall losses, but there was a trade off with power flow sensitivity due in part to the additional harmonics generated. View Full-Text
Keywords: high voltage direct current; power converters; transformer loss; improved general Steinmetz equation; Steinmetz equation; wind energy; power transmission high voltage direct current; power converters; transformer loss; improved general Steinmetz equation; Steinmetz equation; wind energy; power transmission
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Smailes, M.; Ng, C.; Mckeever, P.; Shek, J.; Theotokatos, G.; Abusara, M. Hybrid, Multi-Megawatt HVDC Transformer Topology Comparison for Future Offshore Wind Farms. Energies 2017, 10, 851.

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