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Energies 2017, 10(4), 566;

Optimal Energy Scheduling and Transaction Mechanism for Multiple Microgrids

Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paras Mandal
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Microgrids: Developing the Intelligent Power Grid of Tomorrow)
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In this paper, we propose a framework for optimal energy scheduling combined with a transaction mechanism to enable multiple microgrids to exchange their energy surplus/deficit with others while the distributed networks of microgrids remain secure. Our framework is based on two layers: a distributed network layer and a market layer. In the distributed network layer, we first solve optimal power flow (OPF) using a predictor corrector proximal multiplier algorithm to optimally dispatch diesel generation considering renewable energy and power loss within a microgrid. Then, in the market layer, the agent of microgrid behaves either as a load agent or generator agent so that the auctioneer sets a reasonable transaction price for both agents by using the naive auction-inspired algorithm. Finally, energy surplus/deficit is traded among microgrids at a determined transaction price while the main grid balances the transaction. We implement the proposed mechanism in MATLAB (Matlab Release 15, The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) using an optimization solver, CVX. In the case studies, we compare four scenarios depending on whether OPF and/or energy transaction is performed or not. Our results show that the joint consideration of OPF and energy transaction achieves as minimal a cost as the ideal case where all microgrids are combined into a single microgrid (or called grand-microgrid) and OPF is performed. We confirm that, even though microgrids are operated by private owners who are not collaborated, a transaction-based mechanism can mimic the optimal operation of a grand-microgrid in a scalable way. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgrid; optimal power flow; power quality; distributed optimization; energy transaction; the naive auction-inspired algorithm microgrid; optimal power flow; power quality; distributed optimization; energy transaction; the naive auction-inspired algorithm

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Kim, B.; Bae, S.; Kim, H. Optimal Energy Scheduling and Transaction Mechanism for Multiple Microgrids. Energies 2017, 10, 566.

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