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Article

Influence of the Periodicity of Sinusoidal Boundary Condition on the Unsteady Mixed Convection within a Square Enclosure Using an Ag–Water Nanofluid

1
Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001, Australia
2
Department of Arts and Sciences, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1208, Bangladesh
3
Department of Mathematics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2167; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122167
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section H: Energy Fundamentals and Conversion)
A numerical study of the unsteady mixed convection heat transfer characteristics of an Ag–water nanofluid confined within a square shape lid-driven cavity has been carried out. The Galerkin weighted residual of the finite element method has been employed to investigate the effects of the periodicity of sinusoidal boundary condition for a wide range of Grashof numbers (Gr) (105 to 107) with the parametric variation of sinusoidal even and odd frequency, N, from 1 to 6 at different instants (for τ = 0.1 and 1). It has been observed that both the Grashof number and the sinusoidal even and odd frequency have a significant influence on the streamlines and isotherms inside the cavity. The heat transfer rate enhanced by 90% from the heated surface as the Grashof number (Gr) increased from 105 to 107 at sinusoidal frequency N = 1 and τ = 1. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ag–water nanofluids; unsteady mixed convection; solid volume fraction; sinusoidal frequency; finite element method Ag–water nanofluids; unsteady mixed convection; solid volume fraction; sinusoidal frequency; finite element method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karim, A.; Billah, M.M.; Newton, M.T.T.; Rahman, M.M. Influence of the Periodicity of Sinusoidal Boundary Condition on the Unsteady Mixed Convection within a Square Enclosure Using an Ag–Water Nanofluid. Energies 2017, 10, 2167. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122167

AMA Style

Karim A, Billah MM, Newton MTT, Rahman MM. Influence of the Periodicity of Sinusoidal Boundary Condition on the Unsteady Mixed Convection within a Square Enclosure Using an Ag–Water Nanofluid. Energies. 2017; 10(12):2167. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122167

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karim, Azharul, M. M. Billah, M. T.T. Newton, and M. M. Rahman. 2017. "Influence of the Periodicity of Sinusoidal Boundary Condition on the Unsteady Mixed Convection within a Square Enclosure Using an Ag–Water Nanofluid" Energies 10, no. 12: 2167. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122167

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