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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model

School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD 4702, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1996;
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
PDF [3131 KB, uploaded 1 December 2017]


Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy intensive processes and is accountable for substantial pollutant emissions. Increasing energy costs compel stakeholders and researchers to search for alternative options to improve energy performance and reduce CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels offer a realistic solution towards the reduction of the usage of fossil fuels and the mitigation of pollutant emissions. This paper developed a process model of a precalciner kiln system in the cement industry using Aspen Plus software to simulate the effect of five alternative fuels on pollutant emissions and energy performance. The alternatives fuels used were tyre, municipal solid waste (MSW), meat and bone meal (MBM), plastic waste and sugarcane bagasse. The model was developed on the basis of energy and mass balance of the system and was validated against data from a reference cement plant. This study also investigated the effect of these alternative fuels on the quality of the clinker. The results indicated that up to a 4.4% reduction in CO2 emissions and up to a 6.4% reduction in thermal energy requirement could be achieved using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. It was also found that the alternative fuels had minimum influence on the clinker quality except in the case of MSW. Overall, MBM was found to be a better option as it is capable on reducing energy requirement and CO2 emissions more than others. The outcomes of the study offer better understanding of the effects of solid alternative fuels to achieve higher energy performance and on mitigating pollutant emissions in cement industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: cement; alternative fuel; energy performance; emission; process modelling cement; alternative fuel; energy performance; emission; process modelling

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Rahman, A.; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.; Sharma, S.C. Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model. Energies 2017, 10, 1996.

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