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Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Water Leak-Off Process during Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs

Department of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102200, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121960
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unconventional Natural Gas (UNG) Recoveries 2018)
The water leak-off during hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs is a complicated transport behavior involving thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. Although many leak-off models have been published, none of the models fully coupled the transient fluid flow modeling with heat transfer, chemical-potential equilibrium and natural-fracture dilation phenomena. In this paper, a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) model based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, thermo-poroelastic rock mechanics, and non-isothermal chemical-potential equations is presented to simulate the water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The THMC model takes into account a triple-porosity medium, which includes hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and shale matrix. The leak-off simulation with the THMC model involves all the important processes in this triple-porosity medium, including: (1) water transport driven by hydraulic, capillary, chemical and thermal osmotic convections; (2) gas transport induced by both hydraulic pressure driven convection and adsorption; (3) heat transport driven by thermal convection and conduction; and (4) natural-fracture dilation considered as a thermo-poroelastic rock deformation. The fluid and heat transport, coupled with rock deformation, are described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The semi-implicit finite-difference algorithm is proposed to solve these equations. The evolution of pressure, temperature, saturation and salinity profiles of hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and matrix is calculated, revealing the multi-field coupled water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The influences of hydraulic pressure, natural-fracture dilation, chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis on water leak-off are investigated. Results from this study are expected to provide a better understanding of the predominant leak-off mechanisms for slickwater fracturing-fluids in hydraulically fractured shale gas reservoirs. View Full-Text
Keywords: shale gas; water leak-off; thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model; multi-field coupling; numerical simulation shale gas; water leak-off; thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model; multi-field coupling; numerical simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, F.; Li, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S. Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Water Leak-Off Process during Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Energies 2017, 10, 1960. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121960

AMA Style

Wang F, Li B, Zhang Y, Zhang S. Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Water Leak-Off Process during Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Energies. 2017; 10(12):1960. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121960

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Fei; Li, Baoman; Zhang, Yichi; Zhang, Shicheng. 2017. "Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Water Leak-Off Process during Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs" Energies 10, no. 12: 1960. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121960

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