Next Article in Journal
Shale Gas Content Calculation of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Southeastern Ordos Basin, China
Previous Article in Journal
Research on Exergy Flow Composition and Exergy Loss Mechanisms for Waxy Crude Oil Pipeline Transport Processes
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1950;

Characterization of the Inlet Port Flow under Steady-State Conditions Using PIV and POD

Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia
Advanced Engineering Centre, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
Nust Institute of Civil Engineering (NICE), National University of Science and Technology (NUST), 44000 Islamabad, Pakistan
Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, park road, chak shehzad campus, tarlai kalan, 44000 Islamabad, Pakistan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [5064 KB, uploaded 24 November 2017]   |  


The current study demonstrates an experimental investigation of the tumble flow structures using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) under steady-state conditions considering the central vertical tumble plane. The experiments were carried out on a four-valve, pent-roof Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine head at different valve lifts and with a pressure difference of 150 mmH2O across the intake valves. Furthermore, the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analytical technique was applied to PIV-measured velocity vector maps to characterize the flow structures at various valve lifts, and hence the different rig tumble values. The results show that at low valve lifts (1 to 5 mm), 48.9 to 46.6% of the flow energy is concentrated in the large (mode 1) eddies with only 8.4 to 11.46% in mode 2 and 7.2 to 7.5 in mode 3. At high valve lifts, it can be clearly seen that some of the energy in the large eddies of mode 1 is transferred to the smaller flow structures of modes 2 and 3. This can be clearly seen at valve lift 10 mm where the values of the flow energy were 40.6%, 17.3%, and 8.0% for modes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: GDI engine; tumble motion; PIV; flow bench; POD GDI engine; tumble motion; PIV; flow bench; POD

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

El-Adawy, M.; Heikal, M.R.; A. Aziz, A.R.; Siddiqui, M.I.; Munir, S. Characterization of the Inlet Port Flow under Steady-State Conditions Using PIV and POD. Energies 2017, 10, 1950.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top