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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111911

Economic Analysis of Flat-Plate and U-Tube Solar Collectors Using an Al2O3 Nanofluid

1
Graduate School of Chosun University, Chosun University, 303 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chosun University, 303 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Abstract

In this study, the efficiencies of flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors were investigated experimentally when an Al2O3 nanofluid was used as a working fluid and compared to those of solar collectors using water. The energy savings and CO2 and SO2 generated were calculated and compared to those of solar collectors using water. In addition, based on the experimental results, an economic analysis of the use of solar collectors in various countries was performed. As the concentration of the Al2O3 nanofluid increased, the performance of the solar collector improved. The highest efficiency for the solar collectors was shown at the concentration of 1.0 vol % with the nanoparticle size of 20 nm. The maximum efficiencies of the flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors using a 1.0 vol %-Al2O3 nanofluid with 20-nm nanoparticles was 74.9% and 72.4%, respectively, when the heat loss parameter was zero. The efficiencies of the flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors using Al2O3 nanofluid were 14.8% and 10.7% higher, respectively, than those using water. When 50 EA (each) flat-plate solar collectors were operated for one year using an Al2O3 nanofluid, the coal use, generated CO2, and generated SO2 were 189.99 kg, 556.69 kg, and 2.03 kg less than those of solar collectors using water, respectively. In addition, the largest electricity cost reduction was in Germany. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar collector; nanofluid; thermal efficiency; economic analysis; CO2 reduction solar collector; nanofluid; thermal efficiency; economic analysis; CO2 reduction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kang, W.; Shin, Y.; Cho, H. Economic Analysis of Flat-Plate and U-Tube Solar Collectors Using an Al2O3 Nanofluid. Energies 2017, 10, 1911.

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