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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1868;

An Integrated Modeling Approach for Forecasting Long-Term Energy Demand in Pakistan

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah 67480, Pakistan
Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062, Pakistan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Energy planning and policy development require an in-depth assessment of energy resources and long-term demand forecast estimates. Pakistan, unfortunately, lacks reliable data on its energy resources as well do not have dependable long-term energy demand forecasts. As a result, the policy makers could not come up with an effective energy policy in the history of the country. Energy demand forecast has attained greatest ever attention in the perspective of growing population and diminishing fossil fuel resources. In this study, Pakistan’s energy demand forecast for electricity, natural gas, oil, coal and LPG across all the sectors of the economy have been undertaken. Three different energy demand forecasting methodologies, i.e., Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Holt-Winter and Long-range Energy Alternate Planning (LEAP) model were used. The demand forecast estimates of each of these methods were compared using annual energy demand data. The results of this study suggest that ARIMA is more appropriate for energy demand forecasting for Pakistan compared to Holt-Winter model and LEAP model. It is estimated that industrial sector’s demand shall be highest in the year 2035 followed by transport and domestic sectors. The results further suggest that energy fuel mix will change considerably, such that oil will be the most highly consumed energy form (38.16%) followed by natural gas (36.57%), electricity (16.22%), coal (7.52%) and LPG (1.52%) in 2035. In view of higher demand forecast of fossil fuels consumption, this study recommends that government should take the initiative for harnessing renewable energy resources for meeting future energy demand to not only avert huge import bill but also achieving energy security and sustainability in the long run. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoregressive integrated moving average; energy forecasting; Holt-Winter; long-range energy alternate planning; Pakistan autoregressive integrated moving average; energy forecasting; Holt-Winter; long-range energy alternate planning; Pakistan

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Rehman, S.A.U.; Cai, Y.; Fazal, R.; Das Walasai, G.; Mirjat, N.H. An Integrated Modeling Approach for Forecasting Long-Term Energy Demand in Pakistan. Energies 2017, 10, 1868.

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