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Open AccessArticle

Optimal Cold-Start Control of a Gasoline Engine

Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
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Energies 2017, 10(10), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101548
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
This article analyzes the influence of the ignition retardation on the fuel consumption, the cumulative tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions, and the temperature inside the three-way catalytic converter in a gasoline direct injection engine operated under idling conditions. A dedicated cylinder-individual, model-based, multivariable controller was used in experiments in order to isolate the effect of the ignition retardation on the hydrocarbon emissions as much as possible. An optimal control problem for a gasoline engine at a cold-start is formulated, which is used to interpret the experimental data obtained. The corresponding goal is to minimize the fuel consumption during an initial idling phase of a fixed duration while guaranteeing that the three-way catalytic converter reaches a sufficiently high final temperature and at the same time making sure that the cumulative hydrocarbon emissions stay below a given limit. The experimental data indicates that the engine should be operated with maximum ignition retardation in order to reach any temperature inside the three-way catalytic converter as quickly as possible concurrently with minimum tailpipe emissions and with the minimum possible fuel consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: gasoline direct injection engine; GDI; cold-start; catalyst heating phase; ignition retardation; hydrocarbon emissions; multivariable control gasoline direct injection engine; GDI; cold-start; catalyst heating phase; ignition retardation; hydrocarbon emissions; multivariable control
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Hedinger, R.; Elbert, P.; Onder, C. Optimal Cold-Start Control of a Gasoline Engine. Energies 2017, 10, 1548.

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