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Energies 2017, 10(10), 1450;

Low-Load Limit in a Diesel-Ignited Gas Engine

Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
Academic Editor: Rui Xiong
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Fundamentals and Conversion)
PDF [1190 KB, uploaded 25 September 2017]


The lean-burn capability of the Diesel-ignited gas engine combined with its potential for high efficiency and low CO 2 emissions makes this engine concept one of the most promising alternative fuel converters for passenger cars. Instead of using a spark plug, the ignition relies on the compression-ignited Diesel fuel providing ignition centers for the homogeneous air-gas mixture. In this study the amount of Diesel is reduced to the minimum amount required for the desired ignition. The low-load operation of such an engine is known to be challenging, as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions rise. The objective of this study is to develop optimal low-load operation strategies for the input variables equivalence ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate. A physical engine model helps to investigate three important limitations, namely maximum acceptable HC emissions, minimal CO 2 reduction, and minimal exhaust gas temperature. An important finding is the fact that the high HC emissions under low-load and lean conditions are a consequence of the inability to raise the gas equivalence ratio resulting in a poor flame propagation. The simulations on the various low-load strategies reveal the conflicting demand of lean combustion with low CO 2 emissions and stoichiometric operation with low HC emissions, as well as the minimal feasible dual-fuel load of 3.2 bar brake mean effective pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-load strategy; dual-fuel; supervisory control low-load strategy; dual-fuel; supervisory control

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Hutter, R.; Ritzmann, J.; Elbert, P.; Onder, C. Low-Load Limit in a Diesel-Ignited Gas Engine. Energies 2017, 10, 1450.

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