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Energies 2017, 10(1), 141;

Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design

Department of Computer Sciences, Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, Km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Spain
Airbus Defence and Space, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG12AS, UK
Department of Computer Engineering, Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, Km 33.6, Alcala de Henares 28871, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Calise
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
PDF [1304 KB, uploaded 23 January 2017]


Outdoor lighting is an essential service for modern life. However, the high influence of this type of facility on energy consumption makes it necessary to take extra care in the design phase. Therefore, this manuscript describes an algorithm to help light designers to get, in an easy way, the best configuration parameters and to improve energy efficiency, while ensuring a minimum level of overall uniformity. To make this possible, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. These algorithms are well established, and are simple and effective to solve optimization problems. To take into account the most influential parameters on lighting and energy efficiency, 500 simulations were performed using DIALux software (, DIAL, Ludenscheid, Germany). Next, the relation between these parameters was studied using to data mining software. Subsequently, we conducted two experiments for setting parameters that enabled the best configuration algorithm in order to improve efficiency in the proposed process optimization. View Full-Text
Keywords: Energy efficiency; lighting design; lighting optimization; particle swarm optimization (PSO) Energy efficiency; lighting design; lighting optimization; particle swarm optimization (PSO)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Castillo-Martinez, A.; Ramon Almagro, J.; Gutierrez-Escolar, A.; Del Corte, A.; Castillo-Sequera, J.L.; Gómez-Pulido, J.M.; Gutiérrez-Martínez, J.-M. Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design. Energies 2017, 10, 141.

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