# Bitcoin Network Mechanics: Forecasting the BTC Closing Price Using Vector Auto-Regression Models Based on Endogenous and Exogenous Feature Variables

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Background on Bitcoin

#### 2.1. Bitcoin Ledger

#### 2.2. Bitcoin Development Process

- The network effect;
- Cryptocurrency volatility;
- Cryptocurrency-pegging technology.

#### 2.2.1. The Network Effect

#### 2.2.2. Cryptocurrency Volatility

#### 2.2.3. Cryptocurrency-Pegging Technology

#### 2.3. Market Participants

- Miners—The market participants who are proactively adding transaction records to Bitcoin’s public ledger of past transactions or blockchain and fueling the supply of BTC.
- Individual investors—Investors for the digital assets to purchase goods or services with the digital currency.
- Payment mechanism—Conduct business internationally as international payments are now available via BTC.
- Retail investors—Funds that are likely to pick up the currency as a portion of their portfolio to hedge, like gaining exposure to traditional currency markets.

#### 2.4. Stakeholders

## 3. Related Work

#### 3.1. Machine Learning Prediction Methods

#### 3.2. Time-Series Prediction Methods

## 4. BTC Closing Price Prediction Models

#### 4.1. Endogenous and Exogenous Variables

_{1}= [04-01-2009, 22-11-2016]

_{2}= [01-01-2011, 01-08-2020]

#### 4.2. Vector Autoregression (VAR) Model

#### 4.2.1. Model Assumptions

#### 4.2.2. Model Validation and Verifications

- lag.max = 366—to accommodate a full year of seasonal behavior and trends;
- type = ‘both’—to evaluate the deterministic regressors.

^{2}to verify the accuracy of the relationship that was being estimated. Additionally, other combinations of variables were attempted with exceptionally poor results. Most of the other variables that were included as an aggregate to those used in the model projected dramatic market crashes with negative asset value.

#### 4.3. Bayesian Vector Autoregression (BVAR) Model

#### Prior Specification

- Parameter λ with max = 5 and min = 0.0001, to control the tightness of the prior;
- Parameter α with max = 3 and min = 1, to manage variance decay with increasing lag order;
- var = 10,000,000, to set the prior variance on the model’s constant.

## 5. Experimental Analysis

_{1}= [04-01-2009, 22-11-2016], and Experiment B, [01-01-2011, 01-08-2020]. For Experiment B, the data were normalized using the logarithm of each return variable. Both the VAR and BVAR models were applied and tested on these datasets to forecast the Bitcoin market price. The forecasting results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of our models.

#### 5.1. Experimental Dataset

#### 5.2. Forecasting Results

#### 5.2.1. Results of the VAR Model: Experiment A

#### 5.2.2. Results of the VAR Model: Experiment B

#### 5.2.3. Results of the BVAR Model: Experiment A

#### 5.2.4. Results of the BVAR Model: Experiment B

#### 5.2.5. Analysis and Discussion of Results

^{2}of the model was above 99%, with F-Stats significant at a 99% confidence level, as shown in Table 2.

#### 5.3. Comparative Analysis

## 6. Conclusions and Future Directions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Variables of Significance | Effect |
---|---|

1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 11, 17, 20 day lag of BTC | + |

7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, day lag of BTC | − |

1, 4, 6, 10 day lag of MyWallet users | + |

2, 5, 12 day lag of MyWallet users | − |

Miner’s Revenue, BTC Difficulty, Change in the Number of unique addresses | + |

Number of Transactions per Block, Hash Rate | − |

Variable | R^{2} | F-Statistics |
---|---|---|

BTC Price | 99+% | 99+% |

MyWallet User | 99+% | 99+% |

Total BTC | 99+% | 99+% |

MAPE | RMSE | MAE | |
---|---|---|---|

VAR | 0.0249 | 0.3102 | 0.2260 |

ARIMA (2,2,1) | 0.0421 | 0.3900 | 0.3258 |

BR | 0.0362 | 0.3554 | 0.3826 |

BVAR | 0.0286 | 0.3375 | 0.2501 |

MAPE | RMSE | MAE | |
---|---|---|---|

VAR | 0.0248 | 0.2708 | 0.2212 |

ARIMA (2,2,1) | 0.0421 | 0.3900 | 0.3258 |

BR | 0.0351 | 0.3693 | 0.2776 |

BVAR | 0.0264 | 0.2806 | 0.2286 |

RMSE | MAE | MAPE | |
---|---|---|---|

VAR | 0.0123 | 0.1235 | 0.1023 |

ARIMA (2,2,1) | 0.0143 | 0.1908 | 0.1262 |

BR | 0.0129 | 0.1418 | 0.1158 |

BVAR | 0.0130 | 0.1273 | 0.1247 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ibrahim, A.; Kashef, R.; Li, M.; Valencia, E.; Huang, E.
Bitcoin Network Mechanics: Forecasting the BTC Closing Price Using Vector Auto-Regression Models Based on Endogenous and Exogenous Feature Variables. *J. Risk Financial Manag.* **2020**, *13*, 189.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13090189

**AMA Style**

Ibrahim A, Kashef R, Li M, Valencia E, Huang E.
Bitcoin Network Mechanics: Forecasting the BTC Closing Price Using Vector Auto-Regression Models Based on Endogenous and Exogenous Feature Variables. *Journal of Risk and Financial Management*. 2020; 13(9):189.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13090189

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ibrahim, Ahmed, Rasha Kashef, Menglu Li, Esteban Valencia, and Eric Huang.
2020. "Bitcoin Network Mechanics: Forecasting the BTC Closing Price Using Vector Auto-Regression Models Based on Endogenous and Exogenous Feature Variables" *Journal of Risk and Financial Management* 13, no. 9: 189.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13090189