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Open AccessArticle

Survival Impact of Aggressive Treatment and PD-L1 Expression in Oligometastatic NSCLC

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Department of Internal Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
2
Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
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Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer (IRIC), Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
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Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montreal, QC H2X 0C1, Canada
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Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada
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Service of Molecular Biology, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montreal, QC H2X 0C1, Canada
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Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montreal, QC H2X 0C1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 593-605; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010059
Received: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 20 January 2021
Background: Studies have shown that aggressive treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with oligometastatic disease improves the overall survival (OS) compared to a palliative approach and some immunotherapy checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and T-Lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors are now part of the standard of care for advanced NSCLC. However, the prognostic impact of PD-L1 expression in the oligometastatic setting remains unknown. Methods: Patients with oligometastatic NSCLC were identified from the patient database of the Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM). “Oligometastatic disease” definition chosen is one synchronous metastasis based on the M1b staging of the eight IASLC (The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Classification (within sixth months of diagnosis) or up to three cerebral metastasis based on the methodology of the previous major phase II randomized study of Gomez et al. We compared the OS between patients receiving aggressive treatment at both metastatic and primary sites (Group A) and patients receiving non-aggressive treatment (Group B). Subgroup analysis was performed using tumor PD-L1 expression. Results: Among 643 metastatic NSCLC patients, we identified 67 patients with oligometastasis (10%). Median follow-up was 13.3 months. Twenty-nine patients (43%) received radical treatment at metastatic and primary sites (Group A), and 38 patients (57%) received non-aggressive treatment (Group B). The median OS (mOS) of Group A was significantly longer than for Group B (26 months vs. 5 months, p = 0.0001). Median progression-free survival (mPFS) of Group A was superior than Group B (17.5 months vs. 3.4 months, p = 0.0001). This difference was still significant when controlled for primary tumor staging: stage I (p = 0.316), stage II (p = 0.024), and stage III (p = 0.001). In the cohort of patients who were not treated with PD-L1 inhibitors, PD-L1 expression negatively correlated with mOS. Conclusions: Aggressive treatments of oligometastatic NSCLC significantly improve mOS and mPFS compared to a more palliative approach. PD-L1 expression is a negative prognostic factor which suggests a possible role for immunotherapy in this setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer; oligometastatic; overall survival; PD-L1; aggressive treatment; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; prognostic factor non-small cell lung cancer; oligometastatic; overall survival; PD-L1; aggressive treatment; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; prognostic factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gauvin, C.; Krishnan, V.; Kaci, I.; Tran-Thanh, D.; Bédard, K.; Albadine, R.; Leduc, C.; Gaboury, L.; Blais, N.; Tehfe, M.; Routy, B.; Florescu, M. Survival Impact of Aggressive Treatment and PD-L1 Expression in Oligometastatic NSCLC. Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28, 593-605. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010059

AMA Style

Gauvin C, Krishnan V, Kaci I, Tran-Thanh D, Bédard K, Albadine R, Leduc C, Gaboury L, Blais N, Tehfe M, Routy B, Florescu M. Survival Impact of Aggressive Treatment and PD-L1 Expression in Oligometastatic NSCLC. Current Oncology. 2021; 28(1):593-605. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gauvin, Camille; Krishnan, Vimal; Kaci, Imane; Tran-Thanh, Danh; Bédard, Karine; Albadine, Roula; Leduc, Charles; Gaboury, Louis; Blais, Normand; Tehfe, Mustapha; Routy, Bertrand; Florescu, Marie. 2021. "Survival Impact of Aggressive Treatment and PD-L1 Expression in Oligometastatic NSCLC" Curr. Oncol. 28, no. 1: 593-605. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010059

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