Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction
2. Experimental Section
2.1. History of Hurricane Katrina
2.2. Mesoscale Modeling
2.2.1. Description of the flow chart
- WPS: The WPS program is used primarily for real-data simulations. Its major functions include: (1) defining simulation domains; (2) interpolating terrestrial data (such as terrain, landuse, and soil types) to the simulation domain; and (3) degribbing and interpolating meteorological data from another model to this simulation domain. WPS takes the WRF terrestrial data/Gridded data as the input, and its output goes to the real data initialization.
- WRF-Var: The WRF-Var program is used to ingest observations into the interpolated analyses created by WPS. It can also be used to update WRF model's initial condition when WRF model is run in cycling mode. This program is optional, and is not used in the present work.
- ARW Solver: The unit is the key component in the modeling system, and is composed of several initialization programs for idealized, and real-data simulations, and the numerical integration program. ARW Model Solver takes the input from the initialization unit, and the model output is given to the visualization program. The model is fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations with hydrostatic option on a staggered Arakawa C grid. The wind components u, v, and w are recorded at the respective cell interfaces. The vertical velocity coordinate is a terrain following hydrostatic pressure coordinate. The solver uses the Runge-Kutta 3rd order time integration scheme and 5th order advection options along horizontal direction and the 3rd order in vertical direction. The other key features of the WRF model include:
- complete coriolis and curvature terms
- two-way nesting with multiple nests and nest levels
- map-scale factors for conformal projections:
- ○ polar stereographic
- ○ Lambert-conformal
- ○ Mercator
- time-split small step for acoustic and gravity-wave modes:
- ○ small step horizontally explicit, vertically implicit
- ○ divergence damping option and vertical time off-centering
- ○ external-mode filtering option
- lateral boundary conditions
- ○ idealized cases: periodic, symmetric, and open radiative
- ○ real cases: specified with relaxation zone
- full physics options for land-surface, PBL, radiation, microphysics and cumulus parameterization
- grid analysis nudging and observation nudging
- Graphics Tools: Several programs are supported, including RIP4 (based on NCAR Graphics), NCAR Graphics Command Language (NCL), and conversion programs for other readily available graphics packages: GrADS and Vis5D. Graphic Tools facilitate visualization of the model output and we have used GrADS in the present work. The details of these programs are described in the chapters of the user’s guide .
2.2.2. ARW model configuration
2.3. Atmospheric Sounding and CAPE
temperature of the environment
acceleration due to gravity,
differential vertical height
level of condensation
3. Results and Discussion
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|Dynamics of Vertical Resolution||Primitive equation, no-hydrostatic 35 levels|
|Domains||Domain 1||Domain 2|
|Horizontal Resolution||90 km||30 km|
|Grid Points||81 × 47||100 × 67|
|Domains of integration||126–W 53 W||105.6 W–75.6 W|
|5 N–46 N||20.2 N–40.2 N|
|Initialization||NCEP Global analysis data; 2 way|
|Radiation||Dudhia  scheme for short wave radiation, Rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for long wave radiation |
|Surface Processes||5 layer soil diffusion scheme |
|Boundary Layer||Blackadar Planetory Boundary Layer Parameterization |
|Radiation Scheme||Cloud-resolving radiation,|
|Cumulus Scheme||Grell cumulus parameterization [15,16]|
|Explicit Scheme||Simple ice mixing (Microphysics) scheme [14,20]|
|Time Series Data of Katrina||Observed Satellite Data||Observed CAPE, and Computed Wmax|
|Date||Intensity Level||Time||Latitude ° North||Longitude ° West||Wind Speed (knots)||Sea Level Pressure (mBars)||Precipitation inches||CAPE (J/kg)||Maximum Vertical Velocity (m/s)|
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Tuluri, F.; Reddy, R.S.; Anjaneyulu, Y.; Colonias, J.; Tchounwou, P. Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1937-1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7051937
Tuluri F, Reddy RS, Anjaneyulu Y, Colonias J, Tchounwou P. Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(5):1937-1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7051937Chicago/Turabian Style
Tuluri, Francis, R. Suseela Reddy, Y. Anjaneyulu, John Colonias, and Paul Tchounwou. 2010. "Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7, no. 5: 1937-1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7051937