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Article

The Exposure of Workers at a Busy Road Node to PM2.5: Occupational Risk Characterisation and Mitigation Measures

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School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
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School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
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School of Engineering and Built Environment, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ, UK
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Department of Information, Decisions and Operations, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
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School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Birmingham City University, Birmingham B4 7XG, UK
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Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2092, South Africa
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Institute for Future Transport and Cities, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
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Department of Building, University of Lagos, Lagos 101017, Nigeria
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School of Architecture, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZN, UK
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College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos 101017, Nigeria
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Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos 101017, Nigeria
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luigi Vimercati
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084636
Received: 24 February 2022 / Revised: 20 March 2022 / Accepted: 7 April 2022 / Published: 12 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution: Occupational Exposure and Public Health)
The link between air pollution and health burden in urban areas has been well researched. This has led to a plethora of effective policy-induced monitoring and interventions in the global south. However, the implication of pollutant species like PM2.5 in low middle income countries (LMIC) still remains a concern. By adopting a positivist philosophy and deductive reasoning, this research addresses the question, to what extent can we deliver effective interventions to improve air quality at a building structure located at a busy road node in a LMIC? This study assessed the temporal variability of pollutants around the university environment to provide a novel comparative evaluation of occupational shift patterns and the use of facemasks as risk control interventions. The findings indicate that the concentration of PM2.5, which can be as high as 300% compared to the WHO reference, was exacerbated by episodic events. With a notable decay period of approximately one-week, adequate protection and/or avoidance of hotspots are required for at-risk individuals within a busy road node. The use of masks with 80% efficiency provides sufficient mitigation against exposure risks to elevated PM2.5 concentrations without occupational shift, and 50% efficiency with at least ‘2 h ON, 2 h OFF’ occupational shift scenario. View Full-Text
Keywords: episodic event; elevated PM2.5 concentration; low and middle income countries (LMIC); occupational exposure; risk characterisation; control intervention; reference concentration episodic event; elevated PM2.5 concentration; low and middle income countries (LMIC); occupational exposure; risk characterisation; control intervention; reference concentration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ejohwomu, O.A.; Oladokun, M.; Oshodi, O.S.; Bukoye, O.T.; Edwards, D.J.; Emekwuru, N.; Adenuga, O.; Sotunbo, A.; Uduku, O.; Balogun, M.; Alani, R. The Exposure of Workers at a Busy Road Node to PM2.5: Occupational Risk Characterisation and Mitigation Measures. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 4636. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084636

AMA Style

Ejohwomu OA, Oladokun M, Oshodi OS, Bukoye OT, Edwards DJ, Emekwuru N, Adenuga O, Sotunbo A, Uduku O, Balogun M, Alani R. The Exposure of Workers at a Busy Road Node to PM2.5: Occupational Risk Characterisation and Mitigation Measures. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(8):4636. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084636

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ejohwomu, Obuks A., Majeed Oladokun, Olalekan S. Oshodi, Oyegoke T. Bukoye, David J. Edwards, Nwabueze Emekwuru, Olumide Adenuga, Adegboyega Sotunbo, Ola Uduku, Mobolanle Balogun, and Rose Alani. 2022. "The Exposure of Workers at a Busy Road Node to PM2.5: Occupational Risk Characterisation and Mitigation Measures" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 8: 4636. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084636

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