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Development of a Survey of Sunscreen Use and Attitudes among Adults in Two Coastal States, 2019

1
Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2
School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Population Sciences in the Pacific, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052677
Received: 25 December 2021 / Revised: 21 February 2022 / Accepted: 22 February 2022 / Published: 25 February 2022
Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States, and regular use of broad-spectrum sunscreens can prevent skin cancer. However, a new law in Hawaii that limits sunscreen choices due to the belief that some UV (ultraviolet) filters may damage coral reefs may reduce sunscreen use and increase skin-cancer risk. Because of this, there is a need for measurement tools to help understand consumer behavior and determinants of sunscreen purchase and use. The objectives of this study were (1) to test new questionnaire measures relevant to the Hawaii Sunscreen Ban; and (2) to assess adults’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to sunscreen in two other coastal states. This survey of adult residents of California and Florida was conducted in the summer of 2019. Newly developed scales addressed beliefs about effects of sunscreens on aquatic/marine environments and awareness of the Hawaii sunscreen ban. Respondents completed the survey twice to evaluate the test–retest reliability. Respondents (n = 162) were mainly female, White, and college-educated. New scales had moderate-to-high internal consistency and high test–retest reliability. Sunscreen use was high, sunburn was common, and knowledge and attitudes about sunscreen were modest. Most respondents did not know the specifics of the Hawaii Sunscreen Ban. In multivariate models, significant predictors of sunscreen use were being older, female, and having higher sunscreen knowledge. Sunscreen beliefs were not significantly associated with sunscreen use or sunburn. The findings support the use of the newly developed survey and suggest that more education about sunscreen and sunscreen ingredients is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin cancer; sunscreen; prevention education; policy; public health skin cancer; sunscreen; prevention education; policy; public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Glanz, K.; Kwong, P.L.; Avelis, J.; Cassel, K. Development of a Survey of Sunscreen Use and Attitudes among Adults in Two Coastal States, 2019. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2677. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052677

AMA Style

Glanz K, Kwong PL, Avelis J, Cassel K. Development of a Survey of Sunscreen Use and Attitudes among Adults in Two Coastal States, 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(5):2677. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052677

Chicago/Turabian Style

Glanz, Karen, Pui L. Kwong, Jade Avelis, and Kevin Cassel. 2022. "Development of a Survey of Sunscreen Use and Attitudes among Adults in Two Coastal States, 2019" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 5: 2677. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052677

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