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Article

Prevalence of Aspergillus-Derived Mycotoxins (Ochratoxin, Aflatoxin, and Gliotoxin) and Their Distribution in the Urinalysis of ME/CFS Patients

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Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA
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Institute of Neuro-Immune Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhaomin Dong, Ying Wang and Xiaomin Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042052
Received: 7 January 2022 / Revised: 1 February 2022 / Accepted: 3 February 2022 / Published: 12 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposure, Health Effects and Risk)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a known complex, multi-organ system disorder with a sudden or subacute onset. ME/CFS occurs most commonly among women between 30 and 50 years of age. The current diagnostic criteria of ME/CFS, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, includes: profound fatigue and post-exertional malaise (>6 mo) unrelieved by rest, persistent cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance, and chronic unrefreshing sleep. Despite reported associations between ME/CFS onset and exposure to infectious agents (viral, bacterial, or fungal), the pathophysiology of ME/CFS remains unknown. In this prevalence study, we investigated the rates of Aspergillus-derived toxin levels, Aflatoxin (AF), Ochratoxin A (OTA), and Gliotoxin (GT), in the urinalysis of 236 ME/CFS patients with a history of chronic exposure to mold (i.e., from water-damaged buildings). Among ME/CFS patients reporting chronic exposure to mold, we found evidence of exposure in 92.4 percent of patients, with OTA being the most prevalent mycotoxin. Mold distributions (OTA, AF, and GT) in the urinalysis all demonstrated right skewness, while the distribution of age of ME/CFS patients diagnosed showed no deviation from normality. This study aims to provide preliminary, epidemiological evidence among ME/CFS patients who were diagnosed in South Florida with a history of exposure to mycotoxins. Based on these findings, we proposed how future control studies should approach investigating the association between chronic mold exposure and the diagnosis of ME/CFS. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; aflatoxin; gliotoxin; myalgic encephalomyelitis; chronic fatigue syndrome; urinalysis ochratoxin A; aflatoxin; gliotoxin; myalgic encephalomyelitis; chronic fatigue syndrome; urinalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, T.Y.; Khorramshahi, T.; Taylor, L.A.; Bansal, N.S.; Rodriguez, B.; Rey, I.R. Prevalence of Aspergillus-Derived Mycotoxins (Ochratoxin, Aflatoxin, and Gliotoxin) and Their Distribution in the Urinalysis of ME/CFS Patients. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042052

AMA Style

Wu TY, Khorramshahi T, Taylor LA, Bansal NS, Rodriguez B, Rey IR. Prevalence of Aspergillus-Derived Mycotoxins (Ochratoxin, Aflatoxin, and Gliotoxin) and Their Distribution in the Urinalysis of ME/CFS Patients. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(4):2052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042052

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Ting Yu, Taura Khorramshahi, Lindsey A. Taylor, Nikita S. Bansal, Betsy Rodriguez, and Irma R. Rey. 2022. "Prevalence of Aspergillus-Derived Mycotoxins (Ochratoxin, Aflatoxin, and Gliotoxin) and Their Distribution in the Urinalysis of ME/CFS Patients" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 4: 2052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042052

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