Introduction: Living donor kidney transplantation is the preferred method of treating kidney failure. The donor agrees to undergo an elective procedure for the benefit of the recipient. Aim: To assess the attitude toward living kidney donation and to investigate the factors that contribute to kidney donation willingness. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2020 and February 2021. The study covered a representative group of 953 Poles aged 18−77, living in all Polish voivodships. The relationship between sociodemographic factors, personal values (Personal Values List), the total score of life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale) and the willingness to donate a kidney to another human was assessed using a logistic regression model. Results: The most frequently chosen personal values were: good health; physical and mental fitness; love and friendship; knowledge and wisdom. The most frequently chosen symbols of happiness were: good health, successful family life, being needed by others. The median satisfaction with life for the entire group was 20 [16; 24]. Voluntary donation of a kidney to another human being i.e., family, friends, strangers were more often declared by women (OR = 1.21; Cl95%: 1.03−1.42), for whom the most important symbol of happiness was a life full of adventures, travels (OR = 1.39; Cl95%: 1.06−1.82) and the most important personal value was goodness and tenderness (OR = 1.21; Cl95%: 1.05−1.40). Total scores of The Satisfaction with Life Scale correlated positively with the willingness to voluntarily donate a kidney (OR = 1.03; Cl95%: 1.003−1.06), while age correlated negatively (OR = 0.99; Cl95%: 0.98−0.99). Conclusions: Respondents who declare their willingness to be a living kidney donor are mainly female, for which the most important symbol of happiness is a life full of adventures and travel, and the most important values are personal goodness and tenderness. The desire to donate a kidney to another person decreases with age and grows with life satisfaction. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT04789122).
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