The COVID-19 Pandemic Lowers Active Behavior of Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases, Healthy Peoples and Athletes
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown in CVD Patients
3.2. Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown in Healthy Subjects
3.3. Physical and Physiological Impacts of Training Cessation in Athletes
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|References||First Author (Year)||Outcome Measures||Results||Conclusion|
|||Vetrovsky (2020)||The daily numbers of steps in 26 heart failure (HF) patients||A 16.2% decrease of daily steps was found.||Quarantine had a detrimental effect on the level of the habitual|
physical activity in HF patients.
|||Al Faghi (2020)||HF patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) activity as hours per day from 2 February to 19 April 2020||A 27.1% decline in physical activity was found.|
The median physical activity significantly
declined from 2.4 to 1.8 h/day.
|There was a significant|
decline in the physical activity due to the pandemic.
|||Sassone (2020)||The daily physical activities in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs)||A 25% reduction of the physical activity (1.2 ± 0.3 h/day during the confinement vs. 1.6 ± 0.5 h/day before the confinement)||The COVID-19 pandemic led to an abrupt and statistically significant reduction of the physical activity in patients with primary prevention ICDs.|
|||Chagué (2020)||The physical activities, the lifestyle behaviors, and the psychological states of 150 randomly selected chronic-heart-failure (CHF) patients||A 41.9% decrease in the physical activity and|
a 21.8% increase in HF symptoms were found.
|The current pandemic had negative effects on lifestyle behaviors such as reduced physical activity.|
|||Van Bakel (2020)||The physical activity and the sedentary behavior before and during the COVID-19 lockdown period||The time spent exercising declined from 1.0 to 0.0 h/week.|
The sedentary time increased from 7.8 to 8.9 h/day.
The sedentary behavior increased by 55 min/day.
|The increase in the sedentary time induced a net reduction in habitual physical activity levels in Dutch cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) patients (48% myocardial infarction) during the first-wave COVID-19 lockdown.|
|References||First Author (Year)||Outcome Measures||Results||Conclusion|
|||Romero Blanco (2020)||The weekly sitting times in 213 university students||The weekly sitting time increased by 106.76 min.||The confinement changed the physical activities, and the sedentary lifestyles in university students.|
|||Zheng (2020)||The physical activity levels, the sedentary behaviors, and the sleep in 631 young adults during the COVID-19 epidemic||Walking significantly|
declined from 39.7 to 19.8 min/day.
The times spent in the sedentary behavior and the sleep significantly
increased from 7.8 to 10 and 7.7 to 8.4 h/day, respectively.
reduction in physical behaviors and significant increases in the sedentary behavior and the sleep duration of young adults during the COVID-19 epidemic were identified.
|The physical activities, the walking times, and the sedentary times in 3800 healthy adults during confinement||The physical activity and the walking time decreased by 16.8% and 58.2%, respectively. The sedentary time increased by 23.8%.||Healthy adults decreased the daily physical activity and increased the sedentary time during the COVID-19 confinement.|
|||Ammar (2020)||The physical activities, the lifestyle behaviors, the daily sitting times, and the walking times of 1047 randomly selected adults||The physical activity decreased from five to three days/week.|
The daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 h/day.
The number of minutes/day walking decreased by 34%.
|Home confinement had negative effects on the physical activity with a significant increase in the sitting time, indicative of a more sedentary lifestyle.|
|||Huber (2020)||The physical activities during the COVID-19 lockdown measures in 1980 students||The physical activity decreased in 44.5% of the participants.|
The daily step count decreased by 25%.
|The COVID-19 crisis led to changes in the physical activity among young adults.|
|References||First Author (Year)||Outcome Measures||Results||Conclusion|
|||Mujika (2000)||The VO2max, the blood volumes, and the maximal cardiac outputs in highly trained athletes after a short-term detraining||Declines in the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the blood volume were found. A reduction of the maximal cardiac output||Short-term detraining induced losses of training-induced physiological and performance adaptations|
|||Coyle (1986)||The VO2max, the cardiac outputs, and the blood volumes in endurance-trained men who stopped training for a few weeks||by 9% in blood volume (5.177 to 4.692 mL),|
a 12% reduction of the stroke volume, and a 6% reduction of VO2max were found.
|The decline in the cardiovascular function following a few weeks of detraining is largely due to a reduction in blood volume.|
|||Martin (1986)||The oxygen uptakes, the cardiac outputs, the heart rates in 6 exercise-trained endurance athletes after deconditioning||A reduction in stroke volume and|
a 20% decrease in the left ventricular mass were found.
|Inactivity resulted in losses of adaptations such as a greater stroke volume and a regression of left ventricular hypertrophy.|
|||Raven (1972)||The cardiac outputs and the cardiorespiratory parameters in young females athletes||A reduction of the cardiac output was found.||Three months without formal training sessions reduced the cardiorespiratory fitness of young females athletes.|
|||Houmard (1992)||The VO2max, the resting plasma volumes, and the maximal heart rates in 12 distance runners after 14 days of training cessation||The VO2max decreased by 3 mL/kg/min.|
The maximal heart rate increased by 9 beats per minute.
The resting plasma volume decreased by 5%.
|Training cessation affected measures associated with the distance. The running performance was affected by short-term (14 days) training cessation.|
|||Thompson (1984)||The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of men running 16 km daily after exercise cessation||Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased by 10% to 15%. A 5% decrease in the plasma volume was found.||Exercise cessation led to a reduction in the plasma volume|
|||Cullinane (1986)||The maximum oxygen uptakes, the estimated changes in the plasma volume, and the cardiac dimensions of 15 male competitive distance runners before and after 10 days of exercise cessation||The plasma volume decreased by 5%.|
The resting heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac dimensions remained unchanged with the physical inactivity.
|Short periods of the exercise cessation decrease estimated the plasma volume and increased the maximum exercise heart rate of endurance athletes but did not alter their cardiac dimensions.|
|||Raven (1998)||The VO2max and the lower body negative pressures in 19 volunteers after an 8-week physical deconditioning||The VO2max and the lower body negative pressure tolerance decreased by 7% and 13%, respectively.||The functional modification of the cardiac pressure–volume relationship resulted in the reduced lower body negative pressure tolerance.|
|||Coyle (1984)||The maximal heart rates, the stroke volumes, and the VO2max in 7 endurance exercise-trained subjects after the cessation of training||VO2max declined by 7% during the first 21 day of inactivity.|
An increase of 4% in the maximal heart rate was found.
A decrease of 10% of the stroke volume was identified.
|Loss of adaptations after stopping prolonged intense endurance training occurred from 21 days.|
|||Coyle (1985)||The heart rates, the ventilations, the respiratory exchange ratios, and the blood lactate concentrations in 7 endurance-exercise-trained subjects after the cessation of training||After 84 days of detraining, experimental subjects’ muscle mitochondrial enzyme levels were still 50% above, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was 22% below sedentary control levels.||Adaptations to prolonged endurance training (responsible for the higher lactate threshold) persisting for a long time after training were stopped.|
|||Wibom (1992)||The mitochondrial ATP production rates in 9 men after 3 weeks of detraining||The mitochondrial ATP production rate decreased by 12–28%.||Mitochondrial ATP production rate decreased with detraining.|
|||Henriksson (1977)||Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome oxidase activities during a 6-week period without training||SDH and cytochrome activities returned to the pre-training level.||The fast return to the pre-training levels of both SDH and cytochrome oxidase activities indicated a high turnover rate of enzymes in the TCA cycle as well as the respiratory chain.|
|||Moore (1987)||The VO2max and the citrate synthase (CS) activities in trained subjects after 3 weeks of inactivity||A decrease in CS activity to 80 ± 14.6 nmol/mg protein/min was found.||The mitochondrial content of working skeletal muscle is an important determinant of the substrate utilization during submaximal exercise.|
|||Bosquet (2013)||Meta analysis to assess the effect of resistance training cessation on the strength performance||The submaximal strength, the maximal force, and the maximal power declined.||Resistance training cessation had detrimental effects on all components of muscular performance.|
|||Klausen (1981)||The numbers of capillaries per mm2 and the numbers of capillaries per fiber in 6 male subjects after 8 weeks of detraining||The number of capillaries per fiber decreased.||Eight-week detraining had negative effects on muscle capillarization.|
|||Psilander (1985)||The myonuclear numbers, the fiber volumes, and the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) assessed in 19 subjects after 20 weeks of detraining||The CSA decreased to 17%.||Long detraining periods led to a decrease of the mean muscle fiber areas.|
|||Häkkinen (1981)||The maximal isometric strengths, the strengths correlated, and neural activations in 11 males after 12 weeks of detraining||A decrease of the maximal isometric strength and a decrease of the mean muscle-fiber areas of both fiber types were identified.||Detraining affected muscle hypertrophy.|
|||Houston (1979)||Activities of SDH and LDH, the VO2max, and the muscle fiber areas in 6 well-trained runners after 15 days of detraining||SDH and LDH activities decreased by 24% and 13%, respectively.|
The VO2max decreased by 4%.
The muscle fiber areas became larger.
|Short periods of detraining resulted in significant changes in indices of physiological capacity and function.|
|||Hortobagyi (1993)||The performances, the surface EMG activities, and the types of fibers in 12 power athletes after 14 days of detraining||The performances declined.|
Type II fiber area decreased by 6.4%.
|Short-term detraining affected the size of the type II muscle fibers.|
|||Fringer (1974)||The pulmonary ventilations, the oxygen uptakes, the oxygen pulses, the heart rates, and the total work outputs in 44 trained women after 5 or 10 weeks of detraining||Increases in the resting heart rate and the maximal ventilation equivalent were found. Decreases in the total work, the pulmonary ventilation, the oxygen uptake, and the oxygen pulse were identified.||Losses in the maximal values for the oxygen uptake, the oxygen pulse, and the ventilation equivalent were greater for 10 weeks of detraining than for 5 weeks of detraining.|
|||Giada (1998)||The left ventricle morphologies, systolic functions, and diastolic filling patterns of 24 male cyclists, 12 young, and 12 older, after a 2-month detraining||The wall thicknesses decreased only in young athletes, while the left ventricular mass and the end-diastolic diameter and volume reduced only in older athletes.||Detraining induced greater left ventricular morphological modifications in older athletes.|
|||Leitão (2019)||The oxygen uptake (VO2) and health profile assessments in 47 older trained women after 3 months of detraining||Increases of the resting heart rate and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were found.|
Decreases of the pulmonary ventilation and the VO2/heart rate were identified.
|Detraining induced greater declines in the total health profile and in VO2 after a training particularly developed for older women.|
|||Nolan (2018)||The VO2max, the body fat percentage, the mean arterial pressure, and the HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels after a 13-week training program followed by detraining||The VO2max and the body fat percentage, along with the mean arterial pressure and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels, significantly worsened.||These novel findings underscored the importance of sustained and uninterrupted exercise training.|
|||Petitbois (2003)||The VO2max and the metabolic responses in 10 trained rowers after detraining||A lower adipose tissue triglyceride delivery during exercise was found.|
The total fatty acid concentration decreased.
|Alterations of the metabolic adaptations to training may become rapidly chronic after such a detraining.|
|||Heath (1983)||The VO2max values, the glucose tolerances, and the insulin sensitivities in 8 well-trained subjects who stopped training for 10 days||The maximum rise in the plasma insulin concentration was 100%.|
Blood glucose concentrations higher
|Detraining induced decreased the insulin sensitivity and the glucose tolerance|
|||Giada (1995)||The VO2max, the total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol level, and the triglycerides levels in 24 males cyclists after a 2-month detraining||The VO2max decreased.|
The triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels increased.
|Detraining induced changes in metabolic response to exercise.|
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Kirsch, M.; Vitiello, D. The COVID-19 Pandemic Lowers Active Behavior of Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases, Healthy Peoples and Athletes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1108. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031108
Kirsch M, Vitiello D. The COVID-19 Pandemic Lowers Active Behavior of Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases, Healthy Peoples and Athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1108. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031108Chicago/Turabian Style
Kirsch, Marine, and Damien Vitiello. 2022. "The COVID-19 Pandemic Lowers Active Behavior of Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases, Healthy Peoples and Athletes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1108. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031108