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Review

The Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Glycaemic Control and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Education, Health and Human Sciences, Avery Hill Campus, University of Greenwich, Avery Hill Road, London SE9 2UG, UK
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The School of Nursing, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China
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Smoking Cessation Department, University Hospital, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Lewisham High Street, London SE13 6LH, UK
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Diabetes and Endocrine Department, Darent Valley Hospital, Dartford & Gravesham NHS Trust, Dartford DA2 8DA, UK
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Department of Clinical Nutrition, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi 682041, India
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Centre for Healthcare Research, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Noël Christopher Barengo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031095
Received: 11 December 2021 / Revised: 14 January 2022 / Accepted: 17 January 2022 / Published: 19 January 2022
The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and other metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes is still evolving. Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The PRISMA framework was the method used to conduct the systematic review and meta-analysis, and the search strategy was based on the population, intervention, control and outcome (PICO) model. The Health Sciences Research databases was accessed via EBSCO-host, and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles. Searches were conducted from inception of the databases until 17 September 2021. Results: The results identified three distinct areas: glycaemic control, lipid parameters and body mass index. It was found that COVID-19 lockdown led to a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the levels of glycated haemoglobin (%) compared with pre-COVID group (gp) with a mean difference of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.38). Eleven studies contributed to the data for glycated haemoglobin analysis with a total of 16,895 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown gp, n = 8417; pre-COVID gp, n = 8478). The meta-analysis of fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) also showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in levels of post-COVID-19 lockdown gp compared with pre-COVID gp, with a mean difference of 7.19 (95% CI: 5.28, 9.10). Six studies contributed to fasting plasma glucose analysis involving a total of 2327 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown, n = 1159; pre-COVID gp, n = 1168). The body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) analysis also demonstrated that post-COVID-19 lockdown gp had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher BMI than the pre-COVID gp with a mean difference of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.99; 1.28), involving six studies and a total of 2363 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown gp, n = 1186; pre-COVID gp, n = 1177). There were significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of total cholesterol (mmol/L), triglyceride (mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (mmol/L), and higher levels of HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) in the post-COVID-19 lockdown gp compared with pre-COVID gp, although these results were not consistent following sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: The findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis have demonstrated that COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the levels of glycated haemoglobin, fasting glucose and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the effect of the lockdown on lipid parameters, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol was not consistent. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; COVID-19; COVID-19 lockdown; coronavirus disease-2019; SARS-CoV-2; glycated haemoglobin; lipid parameters; body mass index type 2 diabetes; COVID-19; COVID-19 lockdown; coronavirus disease-2019; SARS-CoV-2; glycated haemoglobin; lipid parameters; body mass index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ojo, O.; Wang, X.-H.; Ojo, O.O.; Orjih, E.; Pavithran, N.; Adegboye, A.R.A.; Feng, Q.-Q.; McCrone, P. The Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Glycaemic Control and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1095. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031095

AMA Style

Ojo O, Wang X-H, Ojo OO, Orjih E, Pavithran N, Adegboye ARA, Feng Q-Q, McCrone P. The Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Glycaemic Control and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1095. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031095

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ojo, Omorogieva, Xiao-Hua Wang, Osarhumwese Osaretin Ojo, Edith Orjih, Nivedita Pavithran, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim Adegboye, Qian-Qian Feng, and Paul McCrone. 2022. "The Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Glycaemic Control and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1095. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031095

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