A Culturally Responsive Trauma-Informed Public Health Emergency Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities in Australia, Developed during COVID-19
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Context
2.2. Study Approach
2.2.1. Rapid Review of Trauma-Informed Public Health Emergency Frameworks
2.2.2. Interviews with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Parents
2.2.3. A Workshop to Discuss Findings with Key Stakeholders
2.2.4. Workshop Planning to Create a Safe Environment
2.2.5. Workshop Procedure
2.2.6. Workshop Data Analysis
- Central goals
- Interdependent core concepts
- Supporting strategies
- Key enablers
- An overarching philosophy
3.1. Level 1: Central Goals
In NSW, many communities went straight from bushfires to COVID; there just wasn’t that time to grieve. Sorry business has been continuous, community still have not overcome the effect of the bushfires.
[It’s] important for young people to be involved in the response and have some control and responsibility. This will also build their resilience.
I think the relationship and the engagement part go really strongly with trust, so if you think about what forms a really strong relationship, trust is usually a key component to that.
[We] need to think about the impacts on adolescents and the impact on their self-esteem. Also, the impacts on the under 5 age group, including parental anxiety and loss of social connections. There needs to be recognition that different age groups are affected in different ways.
3.2. Level 2: Interdependent Core Concepts
The situation would have been less distressing if the hospital staff took the time to listen and understand and respect the family’s needs and wishes. If there was more compassion in their response.
I think one of the biggest challenges that we do have at the moment is with people being a bit hesitant about vaccines and having understandable lack of trust, is how do we keep them connected and not feel othered, …and the importance of having inclusive and not divisive language and ways of talking and way of being in this pandemic and helping everybody come through it together.
What was missing to some extent was discussion around the necessity for positive health messaging, particularly when a lot of the messaging since [the] outbreak has been focused on what people cannot do, which has an impact on self-determination and agency.
3.3. Level 3: Supporting Strategies
We need more on choice/the right for choice—important aspect of cultural integrity. Perhaps belongs between communication and equity and human rights.
3.4. Level 4: Key Enablers
It is important to capture the role of Elders in supporting the younger generation and also the role that the younger generation has in supporting Elders.
3.5. Level 5: Overarching Philosophy
3.6. Elements which Weave through Each Layer
3.6.1. Time—Past, Present and Future
3.6.2. Trauma—Individual, Collective and Historical
4.2. Implications for Practice
4.3. Implications for Policy
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Graham, S.; Kamitsis, I.; Kennedy, M.; Heris, C.; Bright, T.; Bennetts, S.K.; Jones, K.A.; Fiolet, R.; Mohamed, J.; Atkinson, C.; Chamberlain, C. A Culturally Responsive Trauma-Informed Public Health Emergency Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities in Australia, Developed during COVID-19. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 15626. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315626
Graham S, Kamitsis I, Kennedy M, Heris C, Bright T, Bennetts SK, Jones KA, Fiolet R, Mohamed J, Atkinson C, Chamberlain C. A Culturally Responsive Trauma-Informed Public Health Emergency Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities in Australia, Developed during COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(23):15626. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315626Chicago/Turabian Style
Graham, Simon, Ilias Kamitsis, Michelle Kennedy, Christina Heris, Tess Bright, Shannon K. Bennetts, Kimberley A Jones, Renee Fiolet, Janine Mohamed, Caroline Atkinson, and Catherine Chamberlain. 2022. "A Culturally Responsive Trauma-Informed Public Health Emergency Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities in Australia, Developed during COVID-19" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 23: 15626. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315626