Occupational Stressors and Access to COVID-19 Resources among Commuting and Residential Hispanic/Latino Farmworkers in a US-Mexico Border Region
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Data Analysis
3.1. Characteristics of the Study Participants
3.2. Principal Axis Factor Analysis
3.3. Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory (MFWSI) Scores
3.4. Stressors for Daytime and Residential Farmworkers
3.5. Nighttime Residence, MFWSI Stressors, and COVID-19 Variables
- Despite similar social and cultural characteristics, the results provide novel insights into how daytime and resident farmworkers experience stressors. We found no differences in COVID infections and vaccine access between the US and Mexico nighttime residents.
- The results show that age and country of birth (i.e., foreign-born) variables can predict greater stress levels associated with the farmworker lifestyle than nighttime residence. This finding supports research on the enduring impact of experiences of citizenship, language, and cultural barriers, as foreign-born workers residing in Mexico and the US were both more likely to report elevated levels of stress.
- We found that the MFWSI (including the two additional items we added) reduced to five latent factors of stressors confronting US-Mexico border region farmworkers: health and well-being vulnerabilities, inadequate standards of living/unknown conditions of living, unfavorable working conditions, working environment, and language barriers. Moreover, the top five stressors experienced by respondents were related to sleep, family, working conditions, and working environment.
- Mexican nighttime residents were more likely to experience stress from “Sometimes I feel like I don’t get enough sleep”. By contrast, US nighttime residents were more likely to experience stress from “I have to work in bad weather” and “I worry about the air I breathe at work is not clean”. Given that participants whose nighttime residence is Mexico had a commute of 194 min, compared to 72 min for US nighttime residents, a lack of sufficient sleep for Mexico nighttime residents may be related to having much longer commute times.
- Women were more likely to be US resident workers, indicating that family composition and wage earner responsibilities could influence employment opportunities and residential choice.
- The higher reported chronic health conditions among US-based workers might reflect a difference in medical access (compared to Mexico-based workers) and gender in health-seeking behavior.
4.1. Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|No. of persons living with you|
|No. of persons living with you who are also farmworkers |
|Commute Time (in minutes)|
|Country of Birth (n = 198)|
|Gender Identity (n = 198)|
|Prefer not to say||4||2.02|
|Nighttime Residence (n = 193)|
|Highest Level of Education (n = 199)|
|No Formal Schooling||5||2.51|
|High Blood Pressure||46||23.1|
|Tested Positive for COVID-19 (n = 193)|
|I don’t know||9||4.5|
|Did you receive COVID-19 vaccine (n = 197)|
|Factor 1: Health and well-being vulnerabilities|
|My life has become more difficult because my partner is no longer with me (because he or she has moved or has died||0.792|
|I worry about who my children are spending time with||0.640|
|I have health problems because of physical work||0.601|
|There are no stores nearby||0.560|
|I do not get enough credit from other family members for the work I do||0.521|
|I worry about my relationship with my partner||0.509|
|Factor 2: Inadequate Standards of Living/Unknown conditions of living|
|Sometimes I have difficulty finding a job||0.606|
|I find it difficult to talk about my feelings to other people||0.551|
|It is difficult to complete the paperwork necessary to receive social services||0.549|
|Sometimes I have difficulty finding a place to live||0.514|
|Sometimes I don’t feel at home.||0.511|
|At times I have not been able to buy things that I want because I make little money||0.489|
|Migrating to the United States was difficult||0.482|
|I sometimes worry because I do not have reliable transportation||0.479|
|Sometimes I feel my housing in inadequate||0.452|
|Factor 3: Working Conditions|
|I have to work long hours||0.631|
|It is difficult to be away from family members||0.628|
|Sometimes I don’t feel settled||0.581|
|I work in bad weather||0.547|
|I worry about not having medical care||0.486|
|Factor 4: Working Environment|
|It bothers me that other people drink too much alcohol||0.660|
|It bothers me that other people use drugs||0.508|
|I worry about the air I breathe||0.484|
|Sometimes I feel that the conditions of the bathrooms are bad||0.434|
|Factor 5: Language Barriers|
|Difficulty communicating in English||0.692|
|I have difficulty understanding other people when they speak English||0.477|
|% of Variance||14.1%||12%||9.4%||6.3%||3.3%|
|Sometimes I feel like I don’t get enough sleep||3.06 (1.2)||3.22 (1.2)||3.71 (0.76)|
|It is difficult to be away from family members||3.14 (1.9)||2.77 (1.2)||3.38 (1.2)|
|I have to work long hours||2.98 (1.2)||2.62 (1.2)||3.5 (0.92)|
|I work in bad weather||3.06 (1.2)||2.92 (1.2)||3.25 (1.2)|
|I worry about not having medical care||2.72 (1.3)||2.60 (1.3)||3.13 (1.4)|
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Keeney, A.J.; Quandt, A.; Villaseñor, M.D.; Flores, D.; Flores, L., Jr. Occupational Stressors and Access to COVID-19 Resources among Commuting and Residential Hispanic/Latino Farmworkers in a US-Mexico Border Region. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 763. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020763
Keeney AJ, Quandt A, Villaseñor MD, Flores D, Flores L Jr. Occupational Stressors and Access to COVID-19 Resources among Commuting and Residential Hispanic/Latino Farmworkers in a US-Mexico Border Region. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2):763. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020763Chicago/Turabian Style
Keeney, Annie Jane, Amy Quandt, Mercy D. Villaseñor, Daniela Flores, and Luis Flores, Jr. 2022. "Occupational Stressors and Access to COVID-19 Resources among Commuting and Residential Hispanic/Latino Farmworkers in a US-Mexico Border Region" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 2: 763. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020763