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Review

An Overview of Environmental Risk Factors for Food Allergy

1
Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Parkville 3052, Australia
2
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Australia
3
Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Damialis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020722
Received: 25 November 2021 / Revised: 20 December 2021 / Accepted: 21 December 2021 / Published: 10 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Factors, Allergic Diseases and Lung Health)
IgE-mediated food allergy is an increasing public health concern in many regions around the world. Although genetics play a role in the development of food allergy, the reported increase has occurred largely within a single generation and therefore it is unlikely that this can be accounted for by changes in the human genome. Environmental factors must play a key role. While there is strong evidence to support the early introduction of allergenic solids to prevent food allergy, this is unlikely to be sufficient to prevent all food allergy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence on risk factors for food allergy with a focus the outdoor physical environment. We discuss emerging evidence of mechanisms that could explain a role for vitamin D, air pollution, environmental greenness, and pollen exposure in the development of food allergy. We also describe the recent extension of the dual allergen exposure hypothesis to potentially include the respiratory epithelial barrier in addition to the skin. Few existing studies have examined the relationship between these environmental factors with objective measures of IgE-mediated food allergy and further research in this area is needed. Future research also needs to consider the complex interplay between multiple environmental factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: food allergy; vitamin D; environmental greenness; air pollution; pollen; biodiversity food allergy; vitamin D; environmental greenness; air pollution; pollen; biodiversity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peters, R.L.; Mavoa, S.; Koplin, J.J. An Overview of Environmental Risk Factors for Food Allergy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 722. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020722

AMA Style

Peters RL, Mavoa S, Koplin JJ. An Overview of Environmental Risk Factors for Food Allergy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2):722. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020722

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peters, Rachel L., Suzanne Mavoa, and Jennifer J. Koplin. 2022. "An Overview of Environmental Risk Factors for Food Allergy" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 2: 722. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020722

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