Exploring the Interactions between Housing and Neighbourhood Environments for Enhanced Child Wellbeing: The Lived Experience of Parents Living in Areas of High Child Poverty in England, UK
2.1. Settings and Participants
2.2. Data Collection and Analysis
- General information (e.g., how many children in the household, if any children with pre-existing health/wellbeing problems).
- Aspects of the local area and/or community which support, or hinder, child’s health and wellbeing.
- How the home environment supports, or hinders, child’s health and wellbeing. Within this context, related aspects such as the relationship with the landlord (if applicable) and cost of living were covered.
- Synergies or conflicts between home and local environments
- Reflections on changes/improvements: what they would ideally change in their home and/or local area and community to improve child’s health and wellbeing.
- Part 1 Your experience of the street, drawing from the Healthy Streets framework, considers the assessment of street conditions, including experiences while on the street
- Part 2 Your activities and wellbeing: measures of mental wellbeing (WEMWEBS 7-item ) and reported physical activity
- Part 3 Your area: perceptions of the area
- Part 4 Your household: housing environment questions (residents, type of property, tenure, etc.) and access to car/bicycle
- Part 5 About you: demographics, post-code and reported health
- Part 6 Your views: open text questions
3.1. Participant Details and Questionnaire Results
3.2. Thematic Analysis
3.2.1. Theme One: Overcrowding and Overdevelopment in the Area
‘One of the biggest concerns in our area is overcrowding. […] children just not having enough space for study, for play within their homes.’(TH11)
‘I’m sharing a bedroom with my daughter, that’s one thing I would change.’(TH2)
‘We basically live, eat, and entertain in the living room.’(TH9)
‘I would give them space. Not for the garden, I don’t mind. However, for her to go into her own room and play. Even space to have a dining table and chairs to eat together’.(TH8)
3.2.2. Theme Two: Lack of Maintenance and Repairs
‘Usually they’re [the housing association are] good but certain stuff they leave it too late before they can come because they don’t count it as an emergency. For instance, I’ve got a bathroom and toilet which is combined together, and I’ve got five people in one property so you can imagine how often the bathroom is being used. I was left without any bathroom lights for a good three weeks.’(TH2)
‘In kitchen ceiling felt down, I already asked landlord to fix that and he said no, that not his responsibility … I am worried about kids to go to kitchen and I do not feel safe there myself … I do not have anywhere to cook and my cooker is not working.’(BD4)
‘Within our block itself we’ve actually set up a residents’ action group because of the poor conditions that everyone is living in. […] there are many residents who are suffering with damp, with constant leaks. Very old building, the repair work is shoddy … it just doesn’t get seen to properly.’(TH11)
‘They [children] are poorly all the time, the doctor gave me a letter because he (the child) got a chest infection, over and over again. Because of that the doctor gave us a letter to send to the council, they came to my house and took pictures and then sent them to the landlord and said to them they need to do the work in two weeks. They (the landlord) said to me that I need to leave in two weeks and get another house.’(BD7)
‘I’d say my garden is not that friendly to be honest, because of all the smell, rubbish, all those things, I don’t think I’d feel happy for her to play out, I don’t even let her out into the garden most of the time because of all the smell and the rubbish and everything.’(BD1)
3.2.3. Theme Three: Powerlessness and Housing Precarity
‘… a daily battle with them actually. Because where do you keep wet mops if there’s no airing cupboard, if there’s no storage, and it’s winter?’(TH9)
‘I don’t trust nowhere where I live because of other places that I’ve lived. So I won’t, I won’t ever feel safe in my home, do you know what I mean?’(BD9)
‘because of housing situation and we had no financial support, all our source of income as benefits had stopped and we had no money for rent, so the landlord threw us out of the property, basically we had nowhere to live and that was the main reason for them to remove children from our care.’(BD9)
‘When we knew, we said to the housing officer that we are not taking this property. And he said ‘You don’t have any option because you are from homeless’. So we don’t have any options to get anymore property because we are from homeless. This is another thing. There’s so many confusing systems, confusion everywhere.’(TH12)
3.2.4. Theme Four: Neglected Physical Environment in the Local Area
‘One person puts out one piece of rubbish and then within hours it piles up and no one seems to care to think that that is not the right way to do it. […] It just seems like a neglected part of Tower Hamlets.’(TH11)
‘First thing the CCTV, they’re not doing anything about it. Secondly the dustbin, the smell, it’s not good for your health and they’re not doing anything about it.’(TH2)
‘I would blatantly say the Bartlett area and the development, there has been amazing but most of those people have good money, so their access to provisions is fantastic. But [the social landlord] is neglecting a community like ours which is middle income or maybe even lower end I’d say, we’re suffering because they are completely neglecting these areas.’(TH11)
3.2.5. Theme Five: Hyperlocal Safe Green Play Spaces
‘Outside our building we’ve got little small playgrounds. […] That’s really beneficial for all of us, especially for my kids because we don’t have a balcony and we have got no outside space, so we make use of that on a regular basis.’(TH13)
‘The area itself and the way it’s built with the park area and everything, it’s very nice. It’s very nice when you’ve got a good view when you’re out on the balcony and the kids are playing, the surrounding is nice.’(TH2)
[they prefer a particular local park because it has…] ‘More green space and more peaceful and it has a playground attached to it but it also has the fence to separate it. And also I think one side is for smaller kids, the other side is for bigger kids.’(TH1)
3.2.6. Theme Six: Unsafe Outside Local Spaces
‘There’s just always drug dealing, people drinking, smoking right next to the park. Because there’s so much going on, it’s not an environment you want … you’ve constantly got to keep your hand on your child’s hand.’(BD9)
‘I would say kids are bullying more and that is the reason why my kids staying most of the time in a house… would say there is nothing else what is any good for me and my kids, because we live in scary area and we are scared all the time, you never know who can bully you.’(BD4)
‘We need more security basically. That’s the worst thing I would say, the safety…. When it goes dark I’m a bit scared coming home that thinking there might be someone watching… [The police] have [been] patrolling but it’s in the daytime.’(TH4)
3.2.7. Theme Seven: A Trusted Community
‘The neighbours would check in with me and the kids.’(TH8)
‘If I lose it what do the kids have? I mean we could have a nice house, they could have their individual bedrooms but for their mental health, is that really good? As opposed to going out and meeting their friends.’(TH9)
‘We have great neighbours but what lacks is bringing those neighbours together, ways in which we can get people connecting more, that’s lacking in this area.’(TH11)
‘We do need our community to have a get together, because in other areas I’ve seen, the community does parties for them in the area. I think the community our landlord […] should do more of this stuff.’(TH4)
‘My family is in Pakistan and I have no one here. Here I’m alone but because my neighbours are so nice and in this area I have lots of friends. So they are helping me too much.’(BD7)
3.2.8. Theme Eight: Safe and Green Spaces within Walking Distance
‘We have a little park that they can go and play with their friends, reconnect with other little ones if you like and just be with their peers instead of constantly being with the adults and that’s a breath of fresh air and not many people have that privilege.’(TH9)
‘I’d change the play spaces, I think the play spaces need a complete rehaul, they need to redeveloped with the current times. I think the green spaces could be better, more friendly, more benches, more seating areas. They need to be more family orientated. I’d consider planting more trees.’(TH11)
3.2.9. Theme Nine: Healthy and Supportive Amenities within Walking Distance
‘…this area is better, I’m so happy. This area has everything nearby, the mosque and the school, the [local community centre], the parks, everything is near’.(TH6)
‘I don’t really feel that there is a lot for children in the area, you know, like having indoor centres, because you can’t always go to the park, it all depends on the weather…, there’s not a lot of indoor activities that are free, everything that is offered is usually it costs, so that sometimes you know, you can afford to take children to like a play centre, and other times you can’t.’(BD1)
‘If you actually have a real family playroom rather than just on Facebook, you have a real location. And you don’t even have to bring your stuff, that’s my space, if I’m going to do some activities just come here, if I don’t want any activities I can still come here to use it in my free time.’(TH1)
3.2.10. Theme Ten: Further Away Spaces, Accessible via Transport, for Physical, Cultural and Social Development
‘There are so many amazing things happening outside this area so if we could provide more information and support on this, that would be really good.’(TH1)
3.3. Thematic Areas and Children’s Health and Wellbeing: Summary
4.1. Thematic Clusters and Cross-Cutting Issues
- The need to expand access to space and amenities, for example, by providing greater affordable access to storage space (thus helping with overcrowding problems, Theme 1) and increasing the variety of play/green/recreation areas (Themes 5, 8, 9, 10).
- Tackling poor-quality environments and/or disrepair inside and outside the home (Theme 2 and 4).
- Better communication with residents and within the local community. For example, some participants mentioned the need to better communicate child-friendly initiatives run by local organisations or communities (Theme 7). Furthermore, the lack of communication with and involvement of residents in activities related to the prioritisation and fixing of disrepair or hazards inside and outside the home further compounded the direct effect of such problems, by disempowering and belittling residents (Theme 3).
- Supporting and empowering local communities to ‘take ownership’ of local places, spaces and initiatives. Some residents emphasised the value of the local communities in creating places and activities which support various aspects of children’s wellbeing (Theme 7) and also in increasing feelings of social cohesion and safety in response to anti-social behaviours (Theme 6).
4.2. Strengths and Limitations
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Participant ID||Site||Age||Gender||Ethnicity||WEMWBS Cat *||Property Type||Landlord||N Adults||N Children||Enough Living Space? 3||People per Bedroom||Outdoor Space? 4||Coping with Finances|
|TH1||TH||35 to 44||Female||Prefer not to say||High||High-rise Flat 1||NA (owned property)||2||1||No||1.5||No||Prefer not to answer|
|TH2||TH||35 to 44||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||Low rise purpose-built flat 2||Local authority||2||2||No||2||Yes||Finding it very difficult|
|TH4||TH||25 to 34||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||High-rise Flat 1||Housing association||2||4||No||3||Yes||Doing all right|
|TH5||TH||35 to 44||Female||Asian or Asian British||High||High-rise Flat 1||Local authority||3||1||No||2||No||Prefer not to answer|
|TH6||TH||Prefer not to say||Female||Asian or Asian British||High||Low rise purpose-built flat 2||Housing association||2||4||No||3||Yes||Prefer not to answer|
|TH7||TH||25 to 34||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||0||Private landlord||2||3||No||2.5||No||Don’t know|
|TH8||TH||25 to 34||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||Low rise purpose-built flat 2||Local authority||1||2||No||3||No||Doing all right|
|TH9||TH||35 to 44||Female||Asian or Asian British||High||Low rise purpose-built flat 2||Housing association||2||3||No||2.5||Yes||Just about getting by|
|TH10||TH||35 to 44||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||Terraced/Townhouse||Housing association||3||1||Yes||1.3||Yes||Doing all right|
|TH11||TH||35 to 44||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||High-rise Flat 1||Housing association||2||2||No||2||No||Finding it quite difficult|
|TH12||TH||35 to 44||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||Low rise purpose-built flat 2||Local authority||3||3||No||2||Yes||Finding it quite difficult|
|TH13||TH||35 to 44||Female||Asian or Asian British||High||Low rise purpose-built flat 2||Housing association||2||2||Yes||2||No||Doing all right|
|BD1||BD||25 to 34||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||Terraced/Townhouse||NA (owned)||1||1||Yes||0.5||Yes||Finding it very difficult|
|BD2||BD||25 to 34||Male||White||High||Detached||Private landlord||2||1||No||1||Yes||Just about getting by|
|BD3||BD||35 to 44||Male||Other (please specify)||Low||Terraced/Townhouse||Private landlord||2||2||No||2||No||Just about getting by|
|BD4||BD||25 to 34||Female||Other (please specify)||Low||Terraced/Townhouse||Private landlord||1||2||No||1.5||No||Finding it quite difficult|
|BD5||BD||18 to 24||Female||White||High||Other||Housing association||2||2||Yes||2||Yes||Living comfortably|
|BD6||BD||25 to 34||Female||Asian or Asian British||Low||Detached||Private landlord||1||1||No||2||No||Finding it very difficult|
|BD7||BD||25 to 34||Female||Asian or Asian British||High||Other||Private landlord||1||2||Yes||1||Yes||Don’t know|
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Ucci, M.; Ortegon-Sanchez, A.; Mead, N.E.; Godward, C.; Rahman, A.; Islam, S.; Pleace, N.; Albert, A.; Christie, N. Exploring the Interactions between Housing and Neighbourhood Environments for Enhanced Child Wellbeing: The Lived Experience of Parents Living in Areas of High Child Poverty in England, UK. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 12563. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912563
Ucci M, Ortegon-Sanchez A, Mead NE, Godward C, Rahman A, Islam S, Pleace N, Albert A, Christie N. Exploring the Interactions between Housing and Neighbourhood Environments for Enhanced Child Wellbeing: The Lived Experience of Parents Living in Areas of High Child Poverty in England, UK. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(19):12563. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912563Chicago/Turabian Style
Ucci, Marcella, Adriana Ortegon-Sanchez, Naomi E. Mead, Catherine Godward, Aamnah Rahman, Shahid Islam, Nicholas Pleace, Alexandra Albert, and Nicola Christie. 2022. "Exploring the Interactions between Housing and Neighbourhood Environments for Enhanced Child Wellbeing: The Lived Experience of Parents Living in Areas of High Child Poverty in England, UK" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 19: 12563. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912563