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Article

Spatiotemporal Variation in Ground Level Ozone and Its Driving Factors: A Comparative Study of Coastal and Inland Cities in Eastern China

by 1,2, 1,* and 3,*
1
Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing 100012, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159687
Received: 6 July 2022 / Revised: 29 July 2022 / Accepted: 3 August 2022 / Published: 5 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Earth Science and Medical Geology)
Variations in marine and terrestrial geographical environments can cause considerable differences in meteorological conditions, economic features, and population density (PD) levels between coastal and inland cities, which in turn can affect the urban air quality. In this study, a five-year (2016–2020) dataset encompassing air monitoring (from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre), socioeconomic statistical (from the Shandong Province Bureau of Statistics) and meteorological data (from the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Information, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) was employed to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics and underlying drivers of urban ozone (O3) in Shandong Province, a region with both land and sea environments in eastern China. The main research methods included the multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model and wavelet analysis. From 2016 to 2019, the O3 concentration increased year by year in most cities, but in 2020, the O3 concentration in all cities decreased. O3 concentration exhibited obvious regional differences, with higher levels in inland areas and lower levels in eastern coastal areas. The MGWR analysis results indicated the relationship between PD, urbanization rate (UR), and O3 was greater in coastal cities than that in the inland cities. Furthermore, the wavelet coherence (WTC) analysis results indicated that the daily maximum temperature was the most important factor influencing the O3 concentration. Compared with NO, NO2, and NOx (NOx NO + NO2), the ratio of NO2/NO was more coherent with O3. In addition, the temperature, the wind speed, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exerted a greater impact on O3 in coastal cities than that in inland cities. In summary, the effects of the various abovementioned factors on O3 differed between coastal cities and inland cities. The present study could provide a scientific basis for targeted O3 pollution control in coastal and inland cities. View Full-Text
Keywords: ozone; coastal and inland cities; spatiotemporal distribution; wavelet analysis; multiscale geographically weighted regression ozone; coastal and inland cities; spatiotemporal distribution; wavelet analysis; multiscale geographically weighted regression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, M.; Li, Y.; Zhang, F. Spatiotemporal Variation in Ground Level Ozone and Its Driving Factors: A Comparative Study of Coastal and Inland Cities in Eastern China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 9687. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159687

AMA Style

Zhou M, Li Y, Zhang F. Spatiotemporal Variation in Ground Level Ozone and Its Driving Factors: A Comparative Study of Coastal and Inland Cities in Eastern China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(15):9687. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159687

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Mengge, Yonghua Li, and Fengying Zhang. 2022. "Spatiotemporal Variation in Ground Level Ozone and Its Driving Factors: A Comparative Study of Coastal and Inland Cities in Eastern China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 15: 9687. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159687

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