Next Article in Journal
Association between Daily Physical Activity and Locomotive Syndrome in Community-Dwelling Japanese Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
The Relationship between Attachment Styles and Compulsive Online Shopping: The Mediating Roles of Family Functioning Patterns
 
 
Article

Northern Hemisphere Urban Heat Stress and Associated Labor Hour Hazard from ERA5 Reanalysis

1
Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
2
Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
3
Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ivan J. Ramírez, Jieun Lee and Ana Baptista
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138163
Received: 22 April 2022 / Revised: 14 June 2022 / Accepted: 30 June 2022 / Published: 3 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environmental Health and Climate Change)
Increasing surface air temperature is a fundamental characteristic of a warming world. Rising temperatures have potential impacts on human health through heat stress. One heat stress metric is the wet-bulb globe temperature, which takes into consideration the effects of radiation, humidity, and wind speed. It also has broad health and environmental implications. This study presents wet-bulb globe temperatures calculated from the fifth-generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric reanalysis and combines it with health guidelines to assess heat stress variability and the potential for reduction in labor hours over the past decade on both the continental and urban scale. Compared to 2010–2014, there was a general increase in heat stress during the period from 2015 to 2019 throughout the northern hemisphere, with the largest warming found in tropical regions, especially in the northern part of the Indian Peninsula. On the urban scale, our results suggest that heat stress might have led to a reduction in labor hours by up to ~20% in some Asian cities subject to work–rest regulations. Extremes in heat stress can be explained by changes in radiation and circulation. The resultant threat is highest in developing countries in tropical areas where workers often have limited legal protection and healthcare. The effect of heat stress exposure is therefore a collective challenge with environmental, economic, and social implications. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat stress; wet-bulb globe temperature; urban population exposure; labor hour reduction heat stress; wet-bulb globe temperature; urban population exposure; labor hour reduction
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.-Y.; Lung, S.-C.C.; Chiu, P.-G.; Wang, W.-C.; Tsai, I.-C.; Lin, T.-H. Northern Hemisphere Urban Heat Stress and Associated Labor Hour Hazard from ERA5 Reanalysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 8163. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138163

AMA Style

Lee S-Y, Lung S-CC, Chiu P-G, Wang W-C, Tsai I-C, Lin T-H. Northern Hemisphere Urban Heat Stress and Associated Labor Hour Hazard from ERA5 Reanalysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13):8163. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138163

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Shih-Yu, Shih-Chun Candice Lung, Ping-Gin Chiu, Wen-Cheng Wang, I-Chun Tsai, and Thung-Hong Lin. 2022. "Northern Hemisphere Urban Heat Stress and Associated Labor Hour Hazard from ERA5 Reanalysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 13: 8163. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138163

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop