2.3. Parents’ Surveys and Interviews
2.4. Adolescents’ Interviews
2.5. Data Analysis
3.1. Parenting Practices
3.2. Demographic Analysis
3.3. Parenting Practices and Styles and Race/Ethnicity
3.4. Parenting Practices and Styles and Adolescent BMI Percentiles
3.5. Adolescents’ Food Consumption by Parenting Practice and Style and Race/Ethnicity
3.6. Environmental Factors, Family Race/Ethnicity, and Adolescents’ Sex
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Dairy Category||Food Items|
|Dairy||Cheese (or foods made with cheese, including macaroni and cheese, alfredo, taco, pizza, sandwich, bean and cheese burrito, egg and cheese bagel, etc.); yogurt, including those with additional “mix-ins” (e.g., M&M YoCrunch); white milk|
|Dairy SSBs 1||Chocolate milk; drink mixes (e.g., Nesquik vanilla or strawberry powder mix); ice cream milkshake|
|Fruits and Vegetables Category||Food items|
|Total fruits||Oranges (including mandarins); grapes; pears;|
pomegranates; mangoes; Gogo squeeze-pouch applesauce; bananas; cantaloupes; apples; pineapples; strawberries; juices (e.g., orange, cranberry, apple, and Capri-Sun 100% juice pouches)
|Whole fruits||Oranges (including mandarins); grapes; pomegranates; mangoes; apples; squeeze-pouch applesauce (e.g., Gogo SqueeZ); bananas;|
cantaloupes; pineapples; pears; strawberries
|Vegetables||Tomato/marinara sauce (on spaghetti); pizza sauce on pizza; carrots; tomatoes; broccoli; beans/legumes, including bean dips; lettuce; corn; sub-type sandwich w/vegetables; potatoes (sweet potatoes,|
potato salad, mashed, etc.); cabbage; okra; soup; vegetable juices (e.g., V8 tomato juice)
|Unhealthy Food Category||Food items|
|Nondairy SSBs||Punch-type drinks and mixes (e.g., Hi-C orange drink, POG passion fruit juice, and Aloe Vera King juice); sugar-sweetened tea; sports drinks (Gatorade, Powerade, etc.); sugar sodas (Coke, Pepsi, etc.)|
|Sweet||Ice cream; sweetened grains (e.g., Pop-Tart breakfast pastries, funnel cake, chocolate-covered pretzels, cornbread, muffins, doughnuts, and granola bars); pies; marshmallows; cookies/cookie bars; brownies; cakes; trail-mix bars; fruit-flavored snacks (i.e., Fruit by the Foot); chocolate syrup; chocolate/jelly candies (e.g., M&Ms, Mentos, Lifesavers, Starburst, Twix, Tootsie rolls, lollipops, and Push Pop)|
|Salty snacks||Crackers (e.g., Cheez-It and round butter crackers); chips (e.g., Pringles, Doritos, flavored chips, tortilla chips, Hot Fries, Hot Cheetos, Funyuns, and Lay’s Stax); popcorn; pizza snacks/rolls/bagels; pretzels; “tater tots”|
|Monitoring||1. How much do you keep track of the snack foods (potato chips, Doritos, cheese puffs) that your child eats?|
2. How much do you keep track of the sugary drinks (soda/pop, Kool-Aid) that your child drinks?
3. How much do you keep track of the high-fat foods (fried foods, French fries) that your child eats?
4. How much do you keep track of the sweets (candy, ice cream, cake pastries) that your child eats?
5. How much do you keep track of the fruits and vegetables your child eats?
6. I like to be sure that my child does not eat too many high-fat foods.
7. I like to be sure that my child does not eat too many sweets (candy, ice cream, cake, or pastries).
8. I intentionally keep some foods out of my child’s reach.
|Reasoning||1. How often do you say something positive about the food that your child is eating?|
2. I explain my food choices verbally to my child (e.g., “I think I’m going to have some fruit, as I like it and it’s good for me”).
3. How often do you compliment your child for eating food (e.g., “What a good boy! You’re eating your vegetables”)?
4. How often do you encourage your child to try to eat healthy foods such as vegetables?
5. I try to talk more often about foods I would like my child to eat.
6. How often do you tell your child that healthy food tastes good?
7. I make comments about my eating behaviors/food choices when I am with my child (e.g., “I’ll be healthy and have vegetables”).
8. I verbally encourage my child to copy my eating behaviors.
9. How often do you reason with your child to get him/her to eat (e.g., “Milk is good for your health because it will make you strong”)?
10. I tend to talk more often about foods I would like my child to eat.
11. How often do you tell your child how tasty a new food is?
12. I try to influence my child’s food preferences by verbally stating my own (e.g., “I love carrots, they’re one of my favorites”).
|Modeling||1. How much do you keep track of foods labeled as whole grain that your child eats?|
2. My child is more likely to try new foods he or she has seen me eating.
3. When I show my child I enjoy fruits and vegetables, he or she tries them.
4. My child asks to try foods from my plate that he or she sees me eating.
5. My child has picked up eating behaviors from me which I have not intentionally encouraged him or her to copy (e.g., putting ketchup on most foods, or eating vegetables first).
6. My child is more likely to try or eat new foods if I eat the new foods with him or her.
7. How much do you keep track of the milk or foods with calcium, like cheese and yogurt, your child consumes?
|Copying||1. My child has picked up eating behaviors from me which I had tried to hide from him or her (e.g., avoiding certain foods).|
2. The eating behaviors of other family members influence what my child eats.
3. If I point out certain eating behaviors or foods I like or don’t like, my child is more likely to copy them.
4. My child has copied eating habits from me which I did not realize I had (e.g., salting my food before I taste it).
|Authoritative||1. I attend as many of my children’s events and activities as possible.|
2. I know exactly when things are not going very well for my child.
3. My child and I have warm affectionate moments together.
4. I know exactly when my child has difficulty with something.
5. I easily find a way to make time for my child.
6. Every free minute I have I spend with my child.
7. I always help my child with everything he/she does.
8. I find it interesting and educational to be with my child for long periods.
9. When my child is sad, I know what is going on with him or her.
10. I feel good about the relationship I have with my child.
11. I find time to talk with my child.
12. I spend a lot of time with my child.
|Rule-Setting/Expectations||1. I expect my child to follow our family rules.|
2. I make sure that my child understands what I expect of him or her.
3. I have clear expectations for how my child should behave.
4. I teach my child to follow rules.
5. I have clear expectations for how my child should behave.
|Authoritarian||1. When my child has lost something, I stop what I am doing to find it before he/she gets too upset.|
2. I do not let my child get involved in activities or tasks where he/she may potentially fail.
3. I make my child feel guilty when he or she does not meet my expectations.
4. When my child hurts my feelings, I stop talking to him/her until he or she pleases me again.
5. I do not allow my child to question my decisions.
6. When I ask my child to do something, I expect him/her to do it immediately without any questions.
7. I let my child know that I am the boss in our house.
8. I do not allow my child to get angry with me.
9. I make sure my child is aware of how much I sacrifice for him or her.
10. I teach my child to stay in control of his or her feelings at all times.
|Neglecting||1. When my child does something that is not allowed, I do not talk to him or her until he or she says he or she is sorry.|
2. I threaten discipline more often than I actually give it.
3. There are times I just do not have energy to make my child behave as he or she should.
4. I have a hard time consistently enforcing rules with my child.
5. When I discipline my child, I sometimes end the punishment early.
6. I do not always follow through when I threaten to discipline my child.
7. I am less friendly with my child if he or she does not see things my way.
|n||Factor Loadings (Min–Max)||% of |
|Mean (SD)||Median (IQR)|
|Reasoning||8||0.42–0.83||5.70%||3.59 (1.01)||4 (3–4.4)|
|Monitoring||12||0.45–0.85||5.30%||3.66 (1.05)||3.7 (3.1–4.5)|
|Modeling||7||0.44–0.82||4.10%||3.72 (1.22)||4 (3.6–4.4)|
|Copying||4||0.60–0.88||3.30%||3.59 (1.44)||4.1 (2–4.8)|
|Authoritative||12||0.49–0.83||7.40%||4.41 (0.95)||4.8 (4.4–4.9)|
|Rule-setting||5||0.78–0.87||5.10%||4.56 (1.07)||5 (4.4–5)|
|Authoritarian||10||0.43–0.84||4.90%||3.36 (0.91)||3.2 (2.7–3.8)|
|Neglecting||7||0.47–0.67||3.70%||2.78 (1.09)||2.6 (1.7–3.3)|
|Adolescent age (years)|
|Parent age (years)|
|55 or over||2||3.92|
|Below high school||2||3.92|
|Diploma or GED||10||19.61|
|Some college or technical school||27||52.94|
|Four-year college and above||12||23.53|
|Household income (USD)|
|Prefer not to answer||5||9.8|
|Parenting Practice||p-Value||African American|
Mean Score (SD)
Mean Score (SD)
Mean Score (SD)
|Reasoning||0.232||22.95 (36.80)||17.73 (39.10)||25.28 (39.65)|
|Monitoring||0.093||25.12 (36.88)||25.26 (39.19)||16.59 (39.74)|
|Modeling||0.029||30.12 (36.77)||18.53 (39.07)||19.15 (39.63)|
|Copying||0.358||25.33 (36.74)||22.86 (39.03)||18.68 (39.59)|
|Authoritative||0.018||25.16 (32.77)||22.14 (34.06)||12.92 (33.47)|
|Rule-setting||0.086||25.54 (31.07)||16.42 (32.29)||18.73 (31.73)|
|Authoritarian||0.009||25.41 (32.81)||22.46 (34.10)||12.34 (33.51)|
|Neglecting||0.743||18.75 (32.78)||19.25 (34.06)||21.96 (33.48)|
|African American |
|Fruits and |
|Mean (SE)||p-Value||Mean (SE)||p-Value||Mean (SE)||p-Value|
|African American||0.76 (0.10)||0.33 (0.07)||0.36 (0.07)|
|Hispanic||0.83 (0.10)||0.19 (0.05)||0.36 (0.06)|
|White/non-Hispanic||0.64 (0.08)||0.22 (0.05)||0.66 (0.09)|
|Reasoning||0.25 (0.10)||0.008||0.20 (0.17)||0.225||−0.26 (0.11)||0.024|
|Monitoring||0.37 (0.11)||<0.001||0.26 (0.18)||0.149||−0.19 (0.12)||0.137|
|Modeling||0.39 (0.11)||<0.001||0.01 (0.14)||0.914||−0.16 (0.10)||0.134|
|Copying||0.08 (0.08)||0.079||0.09 (0.13)||0.471||−0.09 (0.11)||0.421|
|Authoritative||0.05 (0.13)||0.692||0.08 (0.21)||0.681||−0.07 (0.15)||0.060|
|Rule-setting||−0.04 (0.09)||0.150||−0.02 (0.15)||0.880||0.08 (0.13)||0.039|
|Authoritarian||−0.15 (0.11)||0.179||−0.0007 (0.19)||0.997||0.02 (0.14)||0.866|
|Neglecting||0.10 (0.09)||0.254||−0.06 (0.15)||0.697||−0.04 (0.11)||0.726|
|Model 1||Fruit and Vegetable Consumption|
|African American||−0.21 (0.21)||0.31|
|Model 2||Unhealthy Snack Consumption|
|African American||−0.52 (0.24)||0.03|
|Fruits and Vegetables||Unhealthy Snacks|
|Score 1||Monitoring 2||Modeling 3||Reasoning 4||Authoritative 5||Rule-Setting 6|
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