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Article

The Impact of World Trade Center Related Medical Conditions on the Severity of COVID-19 Disease and Its Long-Term Sequelae

1
Department of Medicine, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
2
World Trade Center Health and Wellness Program, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
3
Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
4
Department of Family, Population and Preventive Medicine, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
5
Department of Psychology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 6963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126963
Received: 29 April 2022 / Revised: 3 June 2022 / Accepted: 4 June 2022 / Published: 7 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue To Mark the 20th Anniversary of 9/11: Long-Term Health Effects)
The individuals who served our country in the aftermath of the attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) following the attacks of 11 September 2001 have, since then, been diagnosed with a number of conditions as a result of their exposures. In the present study, we sought to determine whether these conditions were risk factors for increased COVID-19 disease severity within a cohort of N = 1280 WTC responders with complete information on health outcomes prior to and following COVID-19 infection. We collected data on responders diagnosed with COVID-19, or had evidence of receiving positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction or antigen testing, or were asymptomatic but had IgG positive antibody testing. The presence of post-acute COVID-19 sequelae was measured using self-reported symptom severity scales. Analyses revealed that COVID-19 severity was associated with age, Black race, obstructive airway disease (OAD), as well as with worse self-reported depressive symptoms. Similarly, post-acute COVID-19 sequelae was associated with initial analysis for COVID-19 severity, upper respiratory disease (URD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), OAD, heart disease, and higher depressive symptoms. We conclude that increased COVID-19 illness severity and the presence of post-acute COVID-19 sequelae may be more common in WTC responders with chronic diseases than in those responders without chronic disease processes resulting from exposures at the WTC disaster. View Full-Text
Keywords: 9/11 disaster; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; severity; comorbidities; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome 9/11 disaster; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; severity; comorbidities; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome
MDPI and ACS Style

Lhuillier, E.; Yang, Y.; Morozova, O.; Clouston, S.A.P.; Yang, X.; Waszczuk, M.A.; Carr, M.A.; Luft, B.J. The Impact of World Trade Center Related Medical Conditions on the Severity of COVID-19 Disease and Its Long-Term Sequelae. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 6963. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126963

AMA Style

Lhuillier E, Yang Y, Morozova O, Clouston SAP, Yang X, Waszczuk MA, Carr MA, Luft BJ. The Impact of World Trade Center Related Medical Conditions on the Severity of COVID-19 Disease and Its Long-Term Sequelae. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(12):6963. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126963

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lhuillier, Elizabeth, Yuan Yang, Olga Morozova, Sean A. P. Clouston, Xiaohua Yang, Monika A. Waszczuk, Melissa A. Carr, and Benjamin J. Luft. 2022. "The Impact of World Trade Center Related Medical Conditions on the Severity of COVID-19 Disease and Its Long-Term Sequelae" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 12: 6963. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126963

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