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Article

Household Microenvironment and Under-Fives Health Outcomes in Uganda: Focusing on Multidimensional Energy Poverty and Women Empowerment Indices

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Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
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Centre for Environment and Development, College of Development Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa P.O. Box 1176, Ethiopia
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Department of International Public Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
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School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
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Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
§
Membership of the IMPALA Consortium is provided in the Appendix A.
Academic Editor: Judy Arnetz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6684; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116684
Received: 5 April 2022 / Revised: 20 May 2022 / Accepted: 21 May 2022 / Published: 30 May 2022
Young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are vulnerable to adverse effects of household microenvironments. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)—specifically SDG 3 through 7—urge for a comprehensive multi-sector approach to achieve the 2030 goals. This study addresses gaps in understanding the health effects of household microenvironments in resource-poor settings. It studies associations of household microenvironment variables with episodes of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhoea as well as with stunting among under-fives using logistic regression. Comprehensive data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional demographic and health survey (DHS) in Uganda were analysed. We constructed and applied the multidimensional energy poverty index (MEPI) and the three-dimensional women empowerment index in multi-variate regressions. The multidimensional energy poverty was associated with higher risk of ARI (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.58). Social independence of women was associated with lower risk of ARI (OR= 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.98), diarrhoea (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99), and stunting (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.92). Women’s attitude against domestic violence was also significantly associated with episodes of ARI (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93) and diarrhoea (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93) in children. Access to sanitation facilities was associated with lower risk of ARI (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.68), diarrhoea (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.96), and stunting (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.86). Investments targeting synergies in integrated energy and water, sanitation and hygiene, and women empowerment programmes are likely to contribute to the reduction of the burden from early childhood illnesses. Research and development actions in LMICs should address and include multi-sector synergies. View Full-Text
Keywords: multidimensional energy poverty; women empowerment; water; sanitation; acute respiratory infection; stunting; diarrhoea multidimensional energy poverty; women empowerment; water; sanitation; acute respiratory infection; stunting; diarrhoea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Terfa, Z.G.; Ahmed, S.; Khan, J.; Niessen, L.W.; on behalf of the IMPALA Consortium. Household Microenvironment and Under-Fives Health Outcomes in Uganda: Focusing on Multidimensional Energy Poverty and Women Empowerment Indices. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 6684. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116684

AMA Style

Terfa ZG, Ahmed S, Khan J, Niessen LW, on behalf of the IMPALA Consortium. Household Microenvironment and Under-Fives Health Outcomes in Uganda: Focusing on Multidimensional Energy Poverty and Women Empowerment Indices. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(11):6684. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116684

Chicago/Turabian Style

Terfa, Zelalem G., Sayem Ahmed, Jahangir Khan, Louis W. Niessen, and on behalf of the IMPALA Consortium. 2022. "Household Microenvironment and Under-Fives Health Outcomes in Uganda: Focusing on Multidimensional Energy Poverty and Women Empowerment Indices" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 11: 6684. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116684

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