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Article

Patients’ Perceptions and Outcome Measures after Undergoing the Enhanced Transtheoretical Model Intervention (ETMI) for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Mixed-Method Study

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Department of Physiotherapy, Ariel University, Ariel 4066414, Israel
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Department of Physiotherapy, Central District, “Maccabi” Healthcare Services, Tel-Aviv 5268104, Israel
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School of Communication, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel
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Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, London WC1E 7HU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lisa Goudman
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106106
Received: 14 April 2022 / Revised: 10 May 2022 / Accepted: 16 May 2022 / Published: 17 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Pain Measurements and Pain Outcome Variables)
This study aimed to evaluate the outcome measures and perceptions of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) after being treated with the Enhanced Transtheoretical Model Intervention (ETMI). In this process evaluation mixed-methods study, 30 patients with CLBP electronically completed self-reported measures (function, pain, and fear-avoidance beliefs) before and after ETMI treatment. Subsequently, each patient participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically. Quantitative analysis showed significant improvements in function (p < 0.001), pain (p < 0.001), and fear-avoidance beliefs (p < 0.001) after receiving ETMI treatment, with a large effect size (Cohen’s d = 1.234). Moreover, the average number of physiotherapy sessions was 2.6 ± 0.6 for the ETMI intervention, while the annual average number in Maccabi is estimated at 4.1 ± 1.5. Three main themes emerged from the thematic analysis: (1) communication between the patient and the practitioner; (2) psychosocial treatment elements, and (3) ETMI as a long-term solution for CLBP. The findings of the current study highlight patients’ perceived need for an open and sincere dialogue and for receiving reassurance and encouragement about their LBP. Notably, they had no problem with the fact that they did not receive passive treatment. Accordingly, together with the significant improvement in post-treatment outcome measures, patients perceived the ETMI method as a practical tool for self-managing their back problems in the long term. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-management; chronic low back pain; physiotherapy; patients’ perceptions; the Enhanced Transtheoretical Model Intervention (ETMI) self-management; chronic low back pain; physiotherapy; patients’ perceptions; the Enhanced Transtheoretical Model Intervention (ETMI)
MDPI and ACS Style

Feldman, R.; Nudelman, Y.; Haleva-Amir, S.; Pincus, T.; Ben Ami, N. Patients’ Perceptions and Outcome Measures after Undergoing the Enhanced Transtheoretical Model Intervention (ETMI) for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Mixed-Method Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 6106. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106106

AMA Style

Feldman R, Nudelman Y, Haleva-Amir S, Pincus T, Ben Ami N. Patients’ Perceptions and Outcome Measures after Undergoing the Enhanced Transtheoretical Model Intervention (ETMI) for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Mixed-Method Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(10):6106. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Feldman, Ron, Yaniv Nudelman, Sharon Haleva-Amir, Tamar Pincus, and Noa Ben Ami. 2022. "Patients’ Perceptions and Outcome Measures after Undergoing the Enhanced Transtheoretical Model Intervention (ETMI) for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Mixed-Method Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 10: 6106. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106106

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