Health literacy plays a crucial role during pregnancy, influencing the mother’s health behavior which in turn affects the unborn child’s health. To date, there are only few studies that report on health literacy among pregnant women or even interventions to promote health literacy. GeMuKi (acronym for “Gemeinsam Gesund: Vorsorge plus für Mutter und Kind”—Strengthening health promotion: enhanced check-up visits for mother and child) is a cluster-randomized controlled trial, aimed at improving health literacy in pregnant women by means of a lifestyle intervention in the form of brief counseling. The women in the intervention group receive counseling on lifestyle topics, such as nutrition and physical activity, during their regular prenatal check-ups. The counseling is tailored to the needs of pregnant women. Demographic data is collected at baseline using a paper-based questionnaire. Data on health literacy is collected using the Health Literacy Survey Europe with 16 items (HLS-EU-16) at baseline and the Brief Health Literacy Screener (BHLS) questionnaire at two points during the pregnancy by means of an app, which was developed specifically for the purpose of the project. The results of the study indicate that around 61.9% of the women participating in the GeMuKi study have an adequate level of health literacy at baseline. The regression analyses (general estimating equations) showed no significant effect of the GeMuKi intervention on general health literacy as measured by the BHLS (ß = 0.086, 95% CI [−0.016–0.187]). However, the intervention was significantly positively associated with pregnancy specific knowledge on lifestyle (ß = 0.089, 95% CI [0.024–0.154]). The results of this study indicate that GeMuKi was effective in improving specific pregnancy related knowledge, but did not improve general health literacy.
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