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Article

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Risk, Family Income, and Fish Consumption Estimates of Mercury and Omega-3 PUFAs in the United States

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
2
Department of Neurology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33146, USA
3
ALS and Neuromuscular Disease Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
4
Department of Neurology, Geisel School of Medicine, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul Tchounwou and Jun Yoshinaga
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094528
Received: 18 March 2021 / Revised: 19 April 2021 / Accepted: 21 April 2021 / Published: 24 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminants and Their Risk Assessment)
Most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are considered sporadic, without a known genetic basis, and lifestyle factors are suspected to play an etiologic role. We previously observed increased risk of ALS associated with high nail mercury levels as an exposure biomarker and thus hypothesized that mercury exposure via fish consumption patterns increases ALS risk. Lifestyle surveys were obtained from ALS patients (n = 165) and n = 330 age- and sex-matched controls without ALS enrolled in New Hampshire, Vermont, or Ohio, USA. We estimated their annual intake of mercury and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) via self-reported seafood consumption habits, including species and frequency. In our multivariable model, family income showed a significant positive association with ALS risk (p = 0.0003, adjusted for age, sex, family history, education, and race). Neither the estimated annual mercury nor omega-3 PUFA intakes via seafood were associated with ALS risk. ALS incidence is associated with socioeconomic status; however, consistent with a prior international study, this relationship is not linked to mercury intake estimated via fish or seafood consumption patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; mercury; omega-3 fatty acids; fish; neuromuscular disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; mercury; omega-3 fatty acids; fish; neuromuscular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoffman, H.I.; Bradley, W.G.; Chen, C.Y.; Pioro, E.P.; Stommel, E.W.; Andrew, A.S. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Risk, Family Income, and Fish Consumption Estimates of Mercury and Omega-3 PUFAs in the United States. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4528. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094528

AMA Style

Hoffman HI, Bradley WG, Chen CY, Pioro EP, Stommel EW, Andrew AS. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Risk, Family Income, and Fish Consumption Estimates of Mercury and Omega-3 PUFAs in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4528. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094528

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoffman, Hannah I., Walter G. Bradley, Celia Y. Chen, Erik P. Pioro, Elijah W. Stommel, and Angeline S. Andrew. 2021. "Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Risk, Family Income, and Fish Consumption Estimates of Mercury and Omega-3 PUFAs in the United States" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4528. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094528

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