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Article

Second-Hand Smoke and Its Synergistic Effect with a Body-Mass Index of >24.9 kg/m2 Increase the Risk of Gout Arthritis in Indonesia

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School of Nursing, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Wu-Xing Street, No 250, Taipei City 11031, Taiwan
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Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Diponegoro Street, No 52-60, Salatiga City 50711, Indonesia
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Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Diponegoro Street, No 52-60, Salatiga City 50711, Indonesia
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Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Prof. Sudarto Street, No.13, Semarang City 50275, Indonesia
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Faculty of Health and Medicine, Institut Ilmu Kesehatan Bhakti Wiyata Kediri, College of Nursing, KH Wachid Hasyim Street, No.65, Kediri City 64114, Indonesia
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Center for Nursing and Healthcare Research in Clinical Practice Application, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11696, Taiwan
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Department of Nursing, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei 23561, Taiwan
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Psychiatric Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Post-Baccalaureate Program in Nursing, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Wu-Xing Street, No 250, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alejandro Molina-Leyva, Salvador Arias-Santiago, Eduardo Redondo Cerezo and Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084324
Received: 14 March 2021 / Revised: 11 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 19 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Diseases and Its Impact on Quality of Life)
To analyze the association between smoking status (active smoking and exposure to Second-Hand Smoking (SHS)) and the synergistic effect of smoking status and BMI with gout risk, a community-based case-control design was undertaken among 385 participants, including 304 healthy controls and 81 gout patients from seven community health services. Adjusted Odd Ratios (AORs) and 95% Confidence Interval (CIs) of gout for active smoking and SHS were 3.26 (95% CI = 1.07~9.90) and 4.67 (95% CI = 2.18~10.00) compared to non-smokers. Time-dependent manner of active smoking and SHS significantly increased gout risk with AORs and 95% CIs of 5.95 (1.41~25.03) and 10.12 (3.51~29.14). Dose-dependency of active smokers and SHS showed AORs and 95% CIs of 5.15 (1.28~20.63) and 4.37 (1.33~14.28). Smoking 20 cigarettes (one pack) per day for one year is equivalent to one pack-year. Active smoking >20 pack-year and SHS > 26.5 pack-year increased gout risk with AORs and 95% CIs of 7.18 (1.53~33.67) and 9.95 (3.64~27.22). Participants who smoked (active smoking and SHS) and with Body Mass Index (BMI) of > 24.9 kg/m2 synergistically increased gout risk, with an AOR of 9.65 and 95% CI of 3.25~28.65, compared to BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 and non-smoker. Smoking status (active smoking and SHS) and the synergistic effect of smoking status and BMI increased gout risk in Indonesia. View Full-Text
Keywords: second-hand smoke; synergistic effect; body-mass index; gouty arthritis; Indonesian second-hand smoke; synergistic effect; body-mass index; gouty arthritis; Indonesian
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kurniasari, M.D.; Karwur, F.F.; Rayanti, R.E.; Dharmana, E.; Rias, Y.A.; Chou, K.R.; Tsai, H.-T. Second-Hand Smoke and Its Synergistic Effect with a Body-Mass Index of >24.9 kg/m2 Increase the Risk of Gout Arthritis in Indonesia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4324. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084324

AMA Style

Kurniasari MD, Karwur FF, Rayanti RE, Dharmana E, Rias YA, Chou KR, Tsai H-T. Second-Hand Smoke and Its Synergistic Effect with a Body-Mass Index of >24.9 kg/m2 Increase the Risk of Gout Arthritis in Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4324. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084324

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kurniasari, Maria D., Ferry F. Karwur, Rosiana E. Rayanti, Edi Dharmana, Yohanes A. Rias, Kuei R. Chou, and Hsiu-Ting Tsai. 2021. "Second-Hand Smoke and Its Synergistic Effect with a Body-Mass Index of >24.9 kg/m2 Increase the Risk of Gout Arthritis in Indonesia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4324. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084324

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