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Article

Perceived Effectiveness, Restrictiveness, and Compliance with Containment Measures against the Covid-19 Pandemic: An International Comparative Study in 11 Countries

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Department of Cognitive Science and Psychology, New Bulgarian University, 1618 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, 20500 Turku, Finland
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Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College Krakow, 31-008 Kraków, Poland
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Paramedic Department, Medical College in Prague, 121 08 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Criminology, University of Gavle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden
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Faculty of Medicine, Medical College, Latvian University in Riga, LV-1079 Riga, Latvia
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Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Mysore 570001, India
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Clinical Department of Medicine GE Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy Science and Technology, 540142 Târgu Mureș, Romania
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Centre for Mental Health and Society, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2DG, UK
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Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Karnataka 570001, India
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3806; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073806
Received: 5 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 3 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
National governments took action to delay the transmission of the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) by implementing different containment measures. We developed an online survey that included 44 different containment measures. We aimed to assess how effective citizens perceive these measures, which measures are perceived as violation of citizens’ personal freedoms, which opinions and demographic factors have an effect on compliance with the measures, and what governments can do to most effectively improve citizens’ compliance. The survey was disseminated in 11 countries: UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, India, Latvia, Poland, Romania, and Sweden. We acquired 9543 unique responses. Our findings show significant differences across countries in perceived effectiveness, restrictiveness, and compliance. Governments that suffer low levels of trust should put more effort into persuading citizens, especially men, in the effectiveness of the proposed measures. They should provide financial compensation to citizens who have lost their job or income due to the containment measures to improve measure compliance. Policymakers should implement the least restrictive and most effective public health measures first during pandemic emergencies instead of implementing a combination of many restrictive measures, which has the opposite effect on citizens’ adherence and undermines human rights. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; coronavirus; containment measures; effectiveness; restrictiveness; compliance; Covid-19; public health measures; human rights; proportionality principle pandemic; coronavirus; containment measures; effectiveness; restrictiveness; compliance; Covid-19; public health measures; human rights; proportionality principle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Georgieva, I.; Lantta, T.; Lickiewicz, J.; Pekara, J.; Wikman, S.; Loseviča, M.; Raveesh, B.N.; Mihai, A.; Lepping, P. Perceived Effectiveness, Restrictiveness, and Compliance with Containment Measures against the Covid-19 Pandemic: An International Comparative Study in 11 Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073806

AMA Style

Georgieva I, Lantta T, Lickiewicz J, Pekara J, Wikman S, Loseviča M, Raveesh BN, Mihai A, Lepping P. Perceived Effectiveness, Restrictiveness, and Compliance with Containment Measures against the Covid-19 Pandemic: An International Comparative Study in 11 Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073806

Chicago/Turabian Style

Georgieva, Irina, Tella Lantta, Jakub Lickiewicz, Jaroslav Pekara, Sofia Wikman, Marina Loseviča, Bevinahalli N. Raveesh, Adriana Mihai, and Peter Lepping. 2021. "Perceived Effectiveness, Restrictiveness, and Compliance with Containment Measures against the Covid-19 Pandemic: An International Comparative Study in 11 Countries" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073806

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