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Mental Health during the COVID-19 Lockdown over the Christmas Period in Austria and the Effects of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors

1
Department for Psychotherapy and Biopsychosocial Health, Danube University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria
2
Department of Work, Organization and Society, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Austrian Federal Association for Psychotherapy (ÖBVP), 1030 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073679
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 30 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic a decline in mental health has been reported. This online study investigated mental health and well-being in Austria during a strict lockdown. In total, N = 1505 participants were recruited between 23 December 2020 and 4 January 2021 and levels of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), sleep quality (ISI), well-being (WHO-5), quality of life (WHO-QOL) and stress (PSS-10) were measured. 26% scored above the cut-off for moderate depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10; ♀ = 32%; ♂ = 21%), 23% above the cut-off for moderate anxiety (GAF-7 ≥ 10; ♀ = 29%; ♂ = 17%) and 18% above the cut-off for moderate insomnia (ISI ≥ 15; ♀ = 21%; ♂ = 16%). Mean-scores for quality of life (psychological WHO-QOL) were 68.89, for well-being (WHO-5) 14.34, and for stress (PSS-10) 16.42. The youngest age group (18–24) was most burdened and showed significantly more mental health symptoms compared with the oldest age group (65+) in depressive symptoms (50% vs. 12%), anxiety symptoms (35% vs. 10%), and insomnia (25% vs. 11%, all p-values < 0.05). Mental health decreased compared to both the first lockdown earlier in 2020 and pre-pandemic data. Further analyses indicate these findings were especially apparent for the under 24-year-olds, women, single/separated people, low incomes and those who do not partake in any physical activity (all p-values < 0.05). We highlight the need for ongoing mental health support, particularly to the most burdened groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: mental health; COVID-19; Austria mental health; COVID-19; Austria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dale, R.; Budimir, S.; Probst, T.; Stippl, P.; Pieh, C. Mental Health during the COVID-19 Lockdown over the Christmas Period in Austria and the Effects of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3679. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073679

AMA Style

Dale R, Budimir S, Probst T, Stippl P, Pieh C. Mental Health during the COVID-19 Lockdown over the Christmas Period in Austria and the Effects of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3679. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073679

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dale, Rachel; Budimir, Sanja; Probst, Thomas; Stippl, Peter; Pieh, Christoph. 2021. "Mental Health during the COVID-19 Lockdown over the Christmas Period in Austria and the Effects of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 7: 3679. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073679

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