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Sleep and Awakening Quality during COVID-19 Confinement: Complexity and Relevance for Health and Behavior

1
Sleep Medicine Center—CENC, 1070-068 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Instituto de Saúde Ambiental (ISAMB), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-026 Lisbon, Portugal
3
Comprehensive Health Research Center (CHRC), Nova Medical School, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1169-056 Lisbon, Portugal
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Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes (IMM), 1649-028 Lisbon, Portugal
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Católica Research Centre for Psychological Family and Social Wellbeing (CRC-W), Catholic University, 1649-023 Lisbon, Portugal
6
Clínica Lusíadas de Almada/Parque das Nações-Lisboa 2810-500, 1990-095 Almada, Portugal
7
Psychiatry and Mental Health Department—Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental (CHLO), 1349-019 Lisbon, Portugal
8
Departamento de Medicina, Serviço de Pneumologia, Centro Hospitalar Póvoa de Varzim/Vila do Conde, 4490-421 Póvoa do Varzim, Portugal
9
Centro Lusíada de Investigação em Serviço Social e Intervenção Social (CLISSIS), Universidade Lusíada, 1349-001 Lisboa, Portugal
10
Faculty Human Kynetics, Universidade de Lisboa, 1495-751 Lisboa, Portugal
11
Faculty of Health Sciences/Higher School of Health, University Fernando Pessoa/Fundação Fernando Pessoa, 4200-150 Porto, Portugal
12
Escola Secundária Poeta Al Berto, 7520-902 Sines, Portugal
13
Escola Superior de Saúde Atlântica, Universidade Atlântica, 2730-036 Barcarena, Portugal
14
Department of Neurology, CHULN—Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, 1649-028 Lisbon, Portugal
15
Neurology and Dental Medicine, Hospital da Luz, 1500-065 Lisbon, Portugal
16
Innovation & Development in Nursing research group, CINTESIS—Center for Health Technology and Services Research, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
17
Nursing Department, Escola Superior de Enfermagem S. João de Deus (ESESJD), University Évora, 7000-811 Évora, Portugal
18
Instituto de Sono e Medicina Dentária (ISMD), 9000-098 Funchal, Portugal
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Unidade do Sono, Hospital do Divino Espírito Santo de Ponta Delgada, 9500-370 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
20
Pneumologia, Hospital dos Lusíadas, 1500-458 Lisbon, Portugal
21
Centro Medicina Sono e Serviço Neurologia e Neurofisiologia, Hospital CUF Coimbra, 3000-600 Coimbra, Portugal
22
Serviço Neurologia e Neurofisiologia, Hospital CUF Coimbra, 3000-600 Coimbra, Portugal
23
Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Coimbra, 3046-854 Coimbra, Portugal
24
Pneumologia, Hospital de Vila Franca de Xira, 2600-009 Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal
25
Orisclinic—Centro Integrado de Medicina Dentária de Coimbra, 3030 Coimbra, Portugal
26
Linde Saúde—Homecare, Linde Saúde, 1800-217 Lisbon, Portugal
27
UFRN—AMBSONO Sleep Clinic, Department Psychology, Federal University Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59030-180, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Barbato
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073506
Received: 12 February 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 28 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Quality Research)
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep and awakening quality (SQ and AQ) during COVID-19 in a large and diversified population in order to identify significant associations and risks in terms of demography, health and health-related behaviors, sleep variables, mental health, and attitudes. Methods/Results:Online surveys were used for data collection, received from 5479 individuals from the general population, sleep disorder patients, and COVID-involved (medical doctors (MDs) and nurses) and COVID-affected professionals (teachers, psychologists, and dentists). SQ and AQ were worse in adults, females, and high-education subjects. Feeling worse, having economic problems, depression, anxiety, irritability, and a high Calamity Experience Check List (CECL) score during COVID were significantly associated with poor SQ and AQ. Shorter sleep duration, increased latency, poor nutrition, low physical activity, increased mobile and social network use, more negative and less positive attitudes and behaviors were associated with poor AQ. Conclusions: The SQ logistic regression showed gender, morbidities, CECL, and awakenings as relevant, whereas, for AQ, relevant variables further included age and physical activity. Aiming to have a high stress compliance, each individual should sleep well, have important control of their mood, practice positive behaviors while dismissing negative behaviors and attitudes, practice exercise, have adequate nutrition, and beware of technologies and dependences. View Full-Text
Keywords: health; COVID-19; sleep/awakening quality; Calamity Experience Check List; mood; attitudes; health-related behaviors; dependences; health professionals; sleep patients health; COVID-19; sleep/awakening quality; Calamity Experience Check List; mood; attitudes; health-related behaviors; dependences; health professionals; sleep patients
MDPI and ACS Style

Paiva, T.; Reis, C.; Feliciano, A.; Canas-Simião, H.; Machado, M.A.; Gaspar, T.; Tomé, G.; Branquinho, C.; Silva, M.R.; Ramiro, L.; Gaspar, S.; Bentes, C.; Sampaio, F.; Pinho, L.; Pereira, C.; Carreiro, A.; Moreira, S.; Luzeiro, I.; Pimentel, J.; Videira, G.; Fonseca, J.; Bernarda, A.; Vaz Castro, J.; Rebocho, S.; Almondes, K.; Canhão, H.; Matos, M.G. Sleep and Awakening Quality during COVID-19 Confinement: Complexity and Relevance for Health and Behavior. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073506

AMA Style

Paiva T, Reis C, Feliciano A, Canas-Simião H, Machado MA, Gaspar T, Tomé G, Branquinho C, Silva MR, Ramiro L, Gaspar S, Bentes C, Sampaio F, Pinho L, Pereira C, Carreiro A, Moreira S, Luzeiro I, Pimentel J, Videira G, Fonseca J, Bernarda A, Vaz Castro J, Rebocho S, Almondes K, Canhão H, Matos MG. Sleep and Awakening Quality during COVID-19 Confinement: Complexity and Relevance for Health and Behavior. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073506

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paiva, Teresa; Reis, Cátia; Feliciano, Amélia; Canas-Simião, Hugo; Machado, Maria A.; Gaspar, Tânia; Tomé, Gina; Branquinho, Cátia; Silva, Maria R.; Ramiro, Lúcia; Gaspar, Susana; Bentes, Carla; Sampaio, Francisco; Pinho, Lara; Pereira, Conceição; Carreiro, Alexandra; Moreira, Susana; Luzeiro, Isabel; Pimentel, Joana; Videira, Gabriela; Fonseca, Júlio; Bernarda, Ana; Vaz Castro, Joana; Rebocho, Sofia; Almondes, Katie; Canhão, Helena; Matos, Margarida G. 2021. "Sleep and Awakening Quality during COVID-19 Confinement: Complexity and Relevance for Health and Behavior" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 7: 3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073506

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