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Article

Anxiety, Insomnia, and Napping Predict Poorer Sleep Quality in an Autistic Adult Population

1
Sleep Education and Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology and Human Development, Institute of Education, University College London, London WC1H 0AA, UK
2
Northumbria Sleep Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Barbato
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9883; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189883
Received: 13 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 19 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Quality Research)
Autistic adults have a high prevalence of sleep problems and psychiatric conditions. In the general population sleep problems have been associated with a range of demographic and lifestyle factors. Whether the same factors contribute to different types of disturbed sleep experienced by autistic adults is unknown and served as the main aim of this study. An online survey was conducted with 493 autistic adults. Demographic information (e.g., age, gender), about lifestyle (e.g., napping), and information about comorbid conditions was collected. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was used to assess daytime somnolence. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine predictors of each subscale score on the PSQI, as well as PSQI and ESS total scores. Results indicated that individuals who reported having a diagnosis of anxiety and insomnia were more likely to have poorer sleep quality outcomes overall. Furthermore, individuals who reported habitually napping had higher daytime dysfunction, increased sleep disturbances, and increased daytime sleepiness. These results provide novel insights into the demographic and lifestyle factors that influence sleep quality and daytime somnolence in autistic adults and can be used for targeted sleep interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep quality; daytime sleepiness; autistic adults; demographic factors; lifestyle factors sleep quality; daytime sleepiness; autistic adults; demographic factors; lifestyle factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Sullivan, E.C.; Halstead, E.J.; Ellis, J.G.; Dimitriou, D. Anxiety, Insomnia, and Napping Predict Poorer Sleep Quality in an Autistic Adult Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9883. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189883

AMA Style

Sullivan EC, Halstead EJ, Ellis JG, Dimitriou D. Anxiety, Insomnia, and Napping Predict Poorer Sleep Quality in an Autistic Adult Population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9883. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189883

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sullivan, Emma C., Elizabeth J. Halstead, Jason G. Ellis, and Dagmara Dimitriou. 2021. "Anxiety, Insomnia, and Napping Predict Poorer Sleep Quality in an Autistic Adult Population" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9883. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189883

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