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Article

Instrument Development and Validation to Assess Care Barriers for Patients in Saudi Arabia with Oral Clefts

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Department of Pediatric Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Dentistry Department, King Faisal Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah 21499, Saudi Arabia
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Dentistry Department, Vision College, Jeddah 23643, Saudi Arabia
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Dentistry Department, National Guard Hospital, Jeddah 21423, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21526, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073399
Received: 15 February 2021 / Revised: 20 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 March 2021 / Published: 25 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
The study objective was to construct and validate a tool to assess, measure, and evaluate the barriers and obstacles that patients with orofacial clefts (OFCs), and their families, face during treatment. The Effective Accessibility and Accommodation subscale, based on the translated Primary Care Assessment Survey and Primary Care Assessment Tool scales, was used as a reference for the questionnaire. A total of 165 parents from three main cleft referral centers in Saudi Arabia were interviewed. Questionnaire content validity was conducted by calculation of a content validity index for each item (I-CVI) as well as for the total scale (S-CVI). Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha. Factor analysis and principal components analysis were performed to determine the factor structure of the instrument. The final questionnaire had nine items. Rating results showed both I-CVI and S-CVI scores of 1 and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.86. There were three factors (geographic accessibility, appointment availability and accessibility, and scheduling-related barriers) with eigenvalues above 1.00, which collectively accounted for 73% of the variance. In conclusion, this tool is valid and reliable to evaluate accessibility and barriers to care of patients with OFCs in Saudi Arabia. View Full-Text
Keywords: validation; cleft lip and palate; barriers validation; cleft lip and palate; barriers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khogeer, L.; Helal, N.; Basri, O.; Madani, S.; Basri, A.; El-Houseiny, A.A. Instrument Development and Validation to Assess Care Barriers for Patients in Saudi Arabia with Oral Clefts. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3399. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073399

AMA Style

Khogeer L, Helal N, Basri O, Madani S, Basri A, El-Houseiny AA. Instrument Development and Validation to Assess Care Barriers for Patients in Saudi Arabia with Oral Clefts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3399. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073399

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khogeer, Layla, Narmin Helal, Osama Basri, Sara Madani, Abeer Basri, and Azza A. El-Houseiny. 2021. "Instrument Development and Validation to Assess Care Barriers for Patients in Saudi Arabia with Oral Clefts" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3399. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073399

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