Background: The study aimed to analyze the burden and territorial diversification of adolescent suicide and the link between suicide attempts and selected socioeconomic variables in Poland. Methods: Rates of suicide by voivodeships for years 1999–2019 were obtained from the General Police Headquarters of Poland database. The burden of premature death was expressed in years of life lost (YLL) and costs of lost productivity, which were estimated using the human capital approach. The link between suicide rates and socioeconomic determinants has been analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Over the analyzed period, an increase in suicide attempt rates and a decrease in suicide death rates have been observed. Mean YLL and costs of lost productivity per year amounted to 11,982 and 153,172,415 PLN, respectively. Territorial diversification in suicide attempt rates corresponds to the living condition, poverty, association-based capital, and satisfaction with family situation in individual voivodeships. The number of deaths due to suicide is negatively correlated with an indicator of good living conditions. Conclusions: Our findings provide quantitative evidence of the national impact of suicide and suggest that addressing social capital and poverty may have a role in preventing adolescent mortality due to suicide.
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