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Transmission Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 during an Outbreak in a Roma Community in Thessaly, Greece—Control Measures and Lessons Learned

1
Laboratory of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41222 Larissa, Greece
2
Department of Immunology and Histocompatibility, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece
3
General Hospital of Larissa, 41221 Larissa, Greece
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Region of Thessaly, Koumoundourou & Papanastasiou str, 41222 Larissa, Greece
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Emergency Department, University Hospital of Larissa, Mezourlo, 41110 Larissa, Greece
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Hellenic National Public Health Organization, 15123 Athens, Greece
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Local Health Unit of Ampelokipi, 5th Regional Health Authority of Thessaly & Sterea, Ministry of Health, 41447 Larissa, Greece
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Hellenic National Blood Transfusion Center, 13677 Athens, Greece
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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece
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Department of Nursing, University of the Peloponnese, 22100 Tripoli, Greece
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Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15772 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article and share first authorship.
Academic Editors: Giovanni Gabutti, Andrea Orsi, Armando Stefanati and Jon Øyvind Odland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062878
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 7 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The COVID-19 Pandemic in Europe: Response to Challenges)
A COVID-19 outbreak occurred among residents of a Roma settlement in Greece (8 April–4 June 2020). The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures implemented. Data were analyzed from individuals that were tested for SARS-CoV-2 during contact tracing, population screening or hospital visits. RT-PCR was used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal samples. Risk factors for household secondary attack rates (SAR) and hospitalization with COVID-19 were examined using chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses. During the outbreak, 142 cases, 20 hospitalizations and 1 death were recorded, with a total of 2273 individuals tested. The risk of hospitalization was associated with age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02–1.07) and Cycle threshold (Ct) values (OR for a decrease in Ct values by 1: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07–1.31). Household SAR was estimated at 38.62% (95% CI: 32.50–45.01%). After the designation of an isolation facility for cases, household SAR declined from 74.42% to 31.03%. Household size was associated with the risk of infection (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.00–7.07). The presence of COVID-19 symptoms among index cases was correlated with higher transmission (OR: 23.68, 95% CI 2.21–253.74) in multivariate analysis, while age was found to be associated with SAR only in univariate analysis. Roma communities can be particularly vulnerable to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. In similar settings, symptomatic cases are more important transmitters of SARS-CoV-2. Within these communities, immediate measures should be implemented to mitigate disease spread. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; control measures; household transmission; vulnerable populations; asymptomatic transmission SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; control measures; household transmission; vulnerable populations; asymptomatic transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koureas, M.; Speletas, M.; Bogogiannidou, Z.; Babalis, D.; Pinakas, V.; Pinaka, O.; Komnos, A.; Tsoutsa, S.; Papadamou, G.; Kyritsi, M.A.; Vontas, A.; Nakoulas, V.; Sapoynas, S.; Kanellopoulos, N.; Kalompatsios, D.; Papadouli, V.; Dadouli, K.; Soteriades, S.; Mina, P.; Mouchtouri, V.A.; Anagnostopoulos, L.; Stamoulis, K.E.; Agorastos, K.; Petinaki, E.A.; Prezerakos, P.; Tsiodras, S.; Hadjichristodoulou, C. Transmission Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 during an Outbreak in a Roma Community in Thessaly, Greece—Control Measures and Lessons Learned. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2878. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062878

AMA Style

Koureas M, Speletas M, Bogogiannidou Z, Babalis D, Pinakas V, Pinaka O, Komnos A, Tsoutsa S, Papadamou G, Kyritsi MA, Vontas A, Nakoulas V, Sapoynas S, Kanellopoulos N, Kalompatsios D, Papadouli V, Dadouli K, Soteriades S, Mina P, Mouchtouri VA, Anagnostopoulos L, Stamoulis KE, Agorastos K, Petinaki EA, Prezerakos P, Tsiodras S, Hadjichristodoulou C. Transmission Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 during an Outbreak in a Roma Community in Thessaly, Greece—Control Measures and Lessons Learned. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):2878. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062878

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koureas, Michalis, Matthaios Speletas, Zacharoula Bogogiannidou, Dimitris Babalis, Vassilios Pinakas, Ourania Pinaka, Apostolos Komnos, Stella Tsoutsa, Georgia Papadamou, Maria A. Kyritsi, Alexandros Vontas, Vasileios Nakoulas, Spyros Sapoynas, Nikolaos Kanellopoulos, Dimitrios Kalompatsios, Vassiliki Papadouli, Katerina Dadouli, Soteris Soteriades, Paraskevi Mina, Varvara A. Mouchtouri, Lemonia Anagnostopoulos, Kostantinos E. Stamoulis, Kostantinos Agorastos, Efthimia A. Petinaki, Panagiotis Prezerakos, Sotirios Tsiodras, and Christos Hadjichristodoulou. 2021. "Transmission Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 during an Outbreak in a Roma Community in Thessaly, Greece—Control Measures and Lessons Learned" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 2878. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062878

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